Enymes requiring P5P in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Structural insights into pathogenic mutations in heme-dependent cystathionine-beta-synthase. 2006
Human cystathionine beta-synthase plays a key role in maintaining low intracellular levels of homocysteine and is unique in being a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that is a hemeprotein. It catalyzes the beta-replacement of serine and homocysteine to generate the condensation product, cystathionine.
In this review, we have utilized the available structural models for human cystathionine beta-synthase to conduct a structure-function analysis of a select group of pathogenic mutations described in patients with hereditary hyperhomocysteinemia.
hyperhomocysteinemia from heme or P5P deficiency?
Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia regardless of antioxidant, thiamine, riboflavin, cobalamine, and folate status in critically ill patients. 2015 Yes
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Preliminary report: hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with acute intermittent porphyria. 2010":https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20627200
Homocysteine is an intermediate of methionine metabolism, and its elevation in tissues is correlated with an increased risk for vascular diseases. We measured homocysteine in plasma of 24 patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) and long-term high excretion of heme precursors. Fifteen (62.5%) presented hyperhomocysteinemia (total homocysteine in plasma >15 μmol/L). No association was found between hyperhomocysteinemia and either urinary excretion of heme precursors or clinical status. All the patients showed normal levels of vitamin B₁₂ and folic acid, but 13 (54%) presented low plasma levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP <15 nmol/L). Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) catalyzes a major removal pathway of homocysteine and is dependent on both PLP and heme as cofactors. It is hypothesized that, in AIP, CBS reduced hepatic activity resulting from either a low heme status and/or consumptive depletion of PLP due to increased demand by 5-aminolevulinatesynthase hyperactivity can induce hyperhomocysteinemia.