Reproductive System: Male

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 22/06/2013




The seminiferous tubules, which are highly coiled, originate and terminate at the rete testis. The tubules are surrounded by myoid peritubular cells (MPCs), which, together with Sertoli cells (SCs), secrete components of the basement membranes that enclose the seminiferous epithelium. Columnar SCs extend from the basal lamina to the lumen of the tubules. These SCs are responsible for physical support of the germ cells, providing them with essential nutrients and growth factors.



Your Favorite Gene Sigma"DAZ1":"DAZ2":"DAZ3":"DAZ4":"DAZL":"BOLL":"CASK":

S = spermatozoa
M = mammary gland

CASK_HUMAN kappa-casein

Molecular cloning of mouse mammary gland kappa-casein: comparison with rat kappa-casein and rat and human gamma-fibrinogen. 1985

"Genotyping of bovine kappa-casein (kappa-CNA, kappa-CNB, kappa-CNC, kappa-CNE) following DNA sequence amplification and direct sequencing of kappa-CNE PCR product. 1991":

Genomic DNA isolated from blood and semen of dairy cattle with known kappa-casein . . .


exclusively expressed in testis

Independent specialization of the human and mouse X chromosomes for the male germ line. 2013

We compared the human and mouse X chromosomes to systematically test Ohno's law, which states that the gene content of X chromosomes is conserved across placental mammals. First, we improved the accuracy of the human X-chromosome reference sequence through single-haplotype sequencing of ampliconic regions. The new sequence closed gaps in the reference sequence, corrected previously misassembled regions and identified new palindromic amplicons. Our subsequent analysis led us to conclude that the evolution of human and mouse X chromosomes was bimodal. In accord with Ohno's law, 94-95% of X-linked single-copy genes are shared by humans and mice; most are expressed in both sexes. Notably, most X-ampliconic genes are exceptions to Ohno's law: only 31% of human and 22% of mouse X-ampliconic genes had orthologs in the other species. X-ampliconic genes are expressed predominantly in testicular germ cells, and many were independently acquired since divergence from the common ancestor of humans and mice, specializing portions of their X chromosomes for sperm production.




Effect of different dietary omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratios on reproduction in male rats. 2013

At least 200 spermatozoa and 5 fields were assessed for each specimen (n = 8), and the percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa were determined.


PUFAand testis temperature

Quality and lipid composition of spermatozoa in rabbits fed DHA and vitamin E rich diets., 2009

The effects of fish oil (FO) and vitamin E (vE) dietary supplementation on semen quality, sperm susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, tocopherols content and fatty acid profiles were studied in rabbits. Fifty-two rabbit bucks randomly divided in four groups received a control diet and enriched diets containing either FO (1.5%, w/w), vE (200mg/kg) or both. Semen volume, concentration, motility and viability were analysed at various time-points and the lipid composition was assessed on sperm cells. The phospholipid fatty acid profile was determined: n-6 PUFA were the major fatty acids found, with a proportion of 42%, whereas the n-3 PUFA accounted for nearly 1%, mainly represented by C22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). FO supplementation produced a seven-fold increase in the content of DHA in sperm phospholipids and a comprehensive rearrangement of the phospholipid fatty acid composition, while an unexpected negative effect of feeding high level of vE on the proportion of total PUFA was found. Despite the remarkable changes observed in sperm lipid composition, semen quality parameters were not affected by the dietary treatments and the interaction between the two dietary supplements had a significant effect only on sperm concentration. An increase in semen production by ageing and a concomitant rise in sperm susceptibility to in vitro peroxidation was found. alpha- and delta-tocopherol, present in rabbit sperm in similar amount, were not affected by dietary treatment. delta-tocopherol content had a significant linear negative regression with age and showed a significant negative correlation with the susceptibility to peroxidation values.

Nutritional deprivation of alpha-linolenic acid decreases but does not abolish turnover and availability of unacylated docosahexaenoic acid and docosahexaenoyl-CoA in rat brain., 2000

The conditionally essential PUFA arachidonic acid [AA,4 20:4(n-6)] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA, 22:6(n-3)] make up ∼20% of fatty acids in the mammalian brain

Brain temperature

Brain Temperature: Physiology and Pathophysiology after Brain Injury, 2012

In animals, significant changes of 2 to 3C in brain temperature have been observed after behavioralstimuli

2013-08-09T08:59:38 - Annamaria Vernone

From "Independent specialization of the human and mouse X chromosomes for the male germ line. 2013"

.......in both species, large numbers of genes are expressed in spermatogenic cells, most of which are ampliconic or multicopy. We conclude that the gene repertoires of the human and mouse X chromosomes are products of two complementary evolutionary processes: conservation of single-copy genes that serve in functions shared by the sexes and ongoing gene acquisition, usually involving the formation of amplicons, which leads to the differentiation and specialization of X chromosomes for functions in male gametogenesis.

UCSC Genome Bioinformatics Site

Square dot plots were generated with R software dot-plot

Table 5. "Expression patterns of independently acquired human X-linked genes" analysis and comparison with human protein cluster:

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