Metabolomic profiling of serum in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease by capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry, 2014 Full Text
- There is high interest in the discovery of early diagnostic biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease, for which metabolomics exhibits a great potential. In this work, a metabolomic approach based on ultrafiltration and analysis by CE-MS has been used to obtain representative fingerprints of polar metabolites from serum samples in order to distinguish between patients with Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment, and healthy controls. By the use of partial least squares discriminant analysis it was possible to classify patients according to the disease stage and then identify potential markers. Significant increase was observed with progression of disease in levels of choline, creatinine, asymmetric dimethyl-arginine, homocysteine-cysteine disulfide, phenylalanyl-phenylalanine, and different medium chain acylcarnitines. On the other hand, asparagine, methionine, histidine, carnitine, acetyl-spermidine, and C5-carnitine were reduced in these serum samples. In this way, multiple essential pathways were found implicated in the underlying pathology, such as oxidative stress or defects in energy metabolism. However, the most interesting results are related to the association of several vascular risk factors with Alzheimer’s disease.
Combination of metabolomic and phospholipid-profiling approaches for the study of Alzheimer's disease. 2014
- Alzheimer's disease is closely related to abnormal metabolism of phospholipids from neural membranes, so that the study of their dyshomeostasis could be of great interest for the discovery of potential biomarkers for diagnosis and disease monitoring. In this work, it has been developed a metabolomic multi-platform for the characterization of phospholipid alterations occurring in serum from Alzheimer's disease patients. For this purpose, we performed a metabolomic screening by direct infusion mass spectrometry and profiling analysis by reversed phase ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with complementary detection by molecular and atomic mass spectrometry, which allowed combining the high-throughput capability of shotgun metabolomics and the targeted character of profiling approaches. Thus significant changes were detected in the levels of several molecular species of phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, plasmenylcholines, plasmenylethanolamines and different classes of lysophospholipids, which provided a global vision of the possible factors triggering membrane breakdown. In this sense, alterations of phospholipids metabolism appears to have a multifactorial origin involving overactivation of phospholipases, increased anabolism of lysophospholipids, peroxisomal dysfunction, imbalances in the levels of saturated/unsaturated fatty acids contained in the structure of phospholipids and oxidative stress.
This work represents the first comprehensive characterization of serum phospholipids alterations in relation to Alzheimer's disease, by combining shotgun metabolomics and phospholipids profiling through different analytical approaches.