AMP-activated protein kinase or AMPK is an enzyme that plays a role in cellular energy homeostasis.
It belongs to the family of NMPKs including AMPK and UMP/CMPK.
The net effect of AMPK activation is:
- stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis
- inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, and triglyceride synthesis
- inhibition of adipocyte lipolysis and lipogenesis
- stimulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and muscle glucose uptake
- modulation of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND IMAGES
AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. Each of these three subunits takes on a specific role in both the stability and activity of AMPK. Specifically, the γ subunit includes four particular Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) domains giving AMPK its ability to sensitively detect shifts in the AMP:ATP ratio. The four CBS domains create two binding sites for AMP commonly referred to as Bateman domains. Binding of one AMP to a Bateman domain cooperatively increases the binding affinity of the second AMP to the other Bateman domain. As AMP binds both Bateman domains the γ subunit undergoes a conformational change which exposes the catalytic domain found on the α subunit. It is in this catalytic domain where AMPK becomes activated when phosphorylation takes place at threonine-172 by an upstream AMPK kinase (AMPKK). The α, β, and γ subunits can also be found in different isoforms: the γ subunit can exist as either the γ1, γ2 or γ3 isoform; the β subunit can exist as either the β1 or β2 isoform; and the α subunit can exist as either the α1 or α2 isoform. Although the most common isoforms expressed in most cells are the α1, β1, and γ1 isoforms, it has been demonstrated that the α2, β2, γ2, and γ3 isoforms are also expressed in cardiac and skeletal muscle.
The following human genes encode AMPK subunits:
α – PRKAA1, PRKAA2
β – PRKAB1, PRKAB2
γ – PRKAG1, PRKAG2, PRKAG3
The crystal structure of mammalian AMPK regulatory core domain (α C terminal, β C terminal, γ) has been solved in complex with AMP, ADP or ATP.
When relevant for the function
- Primary structure
- Secondary structure
- Tertiary structure
- Quaternary structure
Protein Aminoacids Percentage (Width 700 px)
From the evolutionary point of view the sequence is from the oldest to the newest:
mTOR --> AAPK1 --> AAKB1 --> AAKG1
mTOR regulation of protein synthesis was probably strictly regulated by AA availability, mainly by methionine and leucine
Later on the control of the activity was dependent on AAPK1, on AAPK1+AAPKB1 and finally in recent times by AAPK1+AAPKB1+AAKG1
SYNTHESIS AND TURNOVER
It consists of three proteins (subunits) that together make a functional enzyme, conserved from yeast to humans. It is expressed in a number of tissues, including the liver, brain, and skeletal muscle.
Localization of AMP kinase is regulated by stress, cell density, and signaling through the MEK→ERK1/2 pathway, 2007
Environmental stress regulates the intracellular localization of AMPK, and upon recovery from heat shock or oxidant exposure AMPK accumulates in the nuclei. We show that under normal growth conditions AMPK shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, a process that depends on the nuclear exporter Crm1. However, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling does not take place in high-density cell cultures, for which AMPK is confined to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate that signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)→extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) cascade plays a crucial role in controlling the proper localization of AMPK.
h4. Cytoplasmic AMP production locally activates AMPK?
- FA activation
- Amino acids transfer
Synthesis of polysaccarides doesn't produce AMP
The core mechanism of the mammalian circadian clock and its link to energy metabolism. (A) High NADH levels promote CLOCK:BMAL1 binding to E-box sequences leading to the acetylation of BMAL1 and expression of Pers, Crys, and other clock-controlled genes. The negative feedback loop, PERs:CRYs, binds to CLOCK:BMAL1 and consequently PERs are acetylated. Activated AMPK leads to a rise in NAD+ levels, phosphorylation of CRYs, and phosphorylation of CKI?, which then phosphorylates the PERs. As a result of increased NAD+ levels, SIRT1 deacetylates PERs and BMAL1. This and the destabilization of phosphorylated PERs and CRYs relieves PERs:CRYs repression and another cycle starts. (B) Expression of Bmal1 and Rev-erbα genes are controlled by PPARα and binding of RORs to RORE sequences. RORs need a co-activator, PGC-1α, which is phosphorylated by activated AMPK. In parallel, AMPK activation leads to an increase in NAD+ levels, which, in turn activate SIRT1. SIRT1 activation leads to PGC-1α deacetylation and activation. Acetyl adenosine diphosphate ribose (Ac-ADP-r) and nicotinamide (NAM) are released after deacetylation by SIRT1.
* Cell signaling and Ligand transport
* Structural proteins
- AMPK as a mediator of hormonal signalling. 2009
AMPK has been shown to mediate the metabolic effects of hormones such as leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, glucocorticoids and insulin as well as cannabinoids.
- Expression of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase with starvation in murine thymocytes. 2011
These results suggest that increased expression of AMPK in starved mouse thymocytes is induced by an increase in glucocorticoids and that activation is induced by hypoglycemia.
- Changes in adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase as a mechanism of visceral obesity in Cushing's syndrome. 2008
OBJECTIVE Features of the metabolic syndrome such as central obesity with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia are typical signs of Cushing's syndrome and common side effects of prolonged glucocorticoid treatment. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key regulatory enzyme of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as appetite, is involved in the development of the deleterious metabolic effects of excess glucocorticoids, but no data are available in humans. In the current study, we demonstrate the effect of high glucocorticoid levels on AMPK activity of human adipose tissue samples from patients with Cushing's syndrome.
METHODS AMPK activity and mRNA expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism were assessed in visceral adipose tissue removed at abdominal surgery of 11 patients with Cushing's syndrome, nine sex-, age-, and weight-matched patients with adrenal incidentalomas, and in visceral adipose tissue from four patients with non-endocrine-related abdominal surgery.
RESULTS The patients with Cushing's syndrome exhibited a 70% lower AMPK activity in visceral adipose tissue as compared with both incidentalomas and control patients (P = 0.007 and P < 0.001, respectively). Downstream targets of AMPK fatty acid synthase and phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase were up-regulated in patients with Cushing's syndrome. AMPK activity was inversely correlated with 0900 h serum cortisol and with urinary free cortisol.
CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest that glucocorticoids inhibit AMPK activity in adipose tissue, suggesting a novel mechanism to explain the deposition of visceral adipose tissue and the consequent central obesity
Glucocorticoids effect is different in adipose tissue versus others tissues?
- CB1 receptor mediates the effects of glucocorticoids on AMPK activity in the hypothalamus. 2013
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a regulator of cellular and systemic energy homeostasis, can be influenced by several hormones. Tissue-specific alteration of AMPK activity by glucocorticoids may explain the increase in appetite, the accumulation of lipids in adipose tissues, and the detrimental cardiac effects of Cushing's syndrome. Endocannabinoids are known to mediate the effects of various hormones and to influence AMPK activity. Cannabinoids have central orexigenic and direct peripheral metabolic effects via the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). In our preliminary experiments, WT mice received implants of a corticosterone-containing pellet to establish a mouse model of Cushing's syndrome. Subsequently, WT and Cb1 (Cnr1)-knockout (CB1-KO) littermates were treated with corticosterone and AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, various adipose tissues, liver and cardiac tissue was measured. Corticosterone-treated CB1-KO mice showed a lack of weight gain and of increase in hypothalamic and hepatic AMPK activity. In adipose tissues, baseline AMPK activity was higher in CB1-KO mice, but a glucocorticoid-induced drop was observed, similar to that observed in WT mice. Cardiac AMPK levels were reduced in CB1-KO mice, but while WT mice showed significantly reduced AMPK activity following glucocorticoid treatment, CB1-KO mice showed a paradoxical increase. Our findings indicate the importance of the CB1 receptor in the central orexigenic effect of glucocorticoid-induced activation of hypothalamic AMPK activity. In the periphery adipose tissues, changes may occur independently of the CB1 receptor, but the receptor appears to alter the responsiveness of the liver and myocardial tissues to glucocorticoids. In conclusion, our data suggest that an intact cannabinoid pathway is required for the full metabolic effects of chronic glucocorticoid excess.
Omega 6 supplementation increases appetite?
Fatty Acid metabolism
Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009 May;196(1):27-35. Epub 2009 Feb 19.
Regulation of glucose transporter 4 traffic by energy deprivation from mitochondrial compromise. 2009
Klip A, Schertzer JD, Bilan PJ, Thong F, Antonescu C.
Cell Biology Program, The Hospital for Sick Children, 555 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. email@example.com
Skeletal muscle is the major store and consumer of fatty acids and glucose. Glucose enters muscle through glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Upon insufficient oxygen availability or energy compromise, aerobic metabolism of glucose and fatty aids cannot proceed, and muscle cells rely on anaerobic metabolism of glucose to restore cellular energy status. An increase in glucose uptake into muscle is a key response to stimuli requiring rapid energy supply. This chapter analyses the mechanisms of the adaptive regulation of glucose transport that rescue muscle cells from mitochondrial uncoupling. Under these conditions, the initial drop in ATP recovers rapidly, through a compensatory increase in glucose uptake. This adaptive response involves AMPK activation by the initial ATP drop, which elevates cell surface GLUT4 and glucose uptake. The gain in surface GLUT4 involves different signals and routes of intracellular traffic compared with those engaged by insulin. The hormone increases GLUT4 exocytosis through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Akt, whereas energy stress retards GLUT4 endocytosis through AMPK and calcium inputs. Given that energy stress is a component of muscle contraction, and that contraction activates AMPK and raises cytosolic calcium, we hypothesize that the increase in glucose uptake during contraction may also involve a reduction in GLUT4 endocytosis.
AMPK Activation via Modulation of De Novo Purine Biosynthesis with an Inhibitor of ATIC Homodimerization, 2015(15)00234-3
AMP-activated Protein Kinase Suppresses Biosynthesis of Glucosylceramide by Reducing Intracellular Sugar Nucleotides. 2015
Importantly, the UDP-glucose pyrophosphatase Nudt14, which degrades UDP-glucose, generating UMP and glucose 1-phosphate, was phosphorylated and activated by AMPK.
Coenzyme Q10 increases the fatty acid oxidation through AMPK-mediated PPARα induction in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 2012
The promoter activity of PPARα was increased by CoQ10 in an AMPK-dependent fashion
A small fraction localizes at membranes (By similarity). Relocates to the cytoplasm when bound to STRAD (STRADA or STRADB) and CAB39/MO25 (CAB39/MO25alpha or CAB39L/MO25beta). Translocates to the mitochondrion during apoptosis. Translocates to the cytoplasm in response to metformin or peroxynitrite treatment. PTEN promotes cytoplasmic localization.
Acts as a key upstream regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation and activation of AMPK catalytic subunits PRKAA1 and PRKAA2 and thereby regulates processes including: inhibition of signaling pathways that promote cell growth and proliferation when energy levels are low, glucose homeostasis in liver, activation of autophagy when cells undergo nutrient deprivation, and B-cell differentiation in the germinal center in response to DNA damage.