Neuroendocrinology of aging in the male and female. 1992
J Endocrinol. 2001 Mar;168(3):435-45.Click here to read Links
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Water metabolism disturbances at different stages of primary thyroid failure.
Sahún M, Villabona C, Rosel P, Navarro MA, Ramón JM, Gómez JM, Soler J.
Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Princeps d'Espanya, Ciutat Sanitària i Universitària de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain.
The aim of the present study was to study salt and water metabolism in thyroid deficiency. We performed an oral water loading test (OWL) and a hypertonic 5% saline infusion test (HSI) in 16 patients with overt primary hypothyroidism before replacement treatment (PRE group) and after, in eight patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SUB group) and in 16 normal individuals (CG group). In the PRE group, a lower free water clearance was detected in the OWL (P < 0.022), with lower plasma osmolality (OWL: P < 0.005; HSI: P < 0.001) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) (OWL: P < 0.001; HSI: P < 0.001) than the CG group, across both tests; they normalized with the replacement treatment. The same plasma abnormalities were detected in the SUB group with the HSI. Although the AVP and thirst thresholds did not differ between the groups, the lag between them was lower in the PRE (4.1+/-3.2 mOsm/kg) and SUB group (2.6+/-2.1 mOsm/kg) than in the CG group (13.3+/-9.2 mOsm/kg) (P < 0.05). There were no differences in atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH), plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma aldosterone among the groups. These results indicate that plasma hypo-osmolality and low levels of AVP are present in primary hypothyroidism, and indeed are already present in the subclinical phase of the disease. An overlap between the thresholds of thirst and AVP seem to play a role in these abnormalities, but ANH, PRA and plasma aldosterone do not appear to contribute.
Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1987 Mar;114(3):389-95.Links
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Osmoregulation of arginine-8-vasopressin secretion in primary hypothyroidism and in Addison's disease.
Laczi F, Janáky T, Iványi T, Julesz J, László FA.
The osmoregulation of arginine-8-vasopressin (AVP) was investigated in 14 patients with primary hypothyroidism and in 6 with Addison's disease. Plasma AVP was measured by radioimmunoassay. Patients with primary hypothyroidism were classified into subgroups with elevated (6.81 +/- 1.12 pmol/l) or normal (3.92 +/- 0.96 pmol/l) basal levels of plasma AVP. Following the infusion of 2.5% saline, a positive correlation was established between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality. A decreased osmotic threshold was found in hypothyroid patients with augmented basal AVP levels (pAVP = 0.37 (pOs-265), r = 0.71, P less than 0.01) as compared with that in hypothyroid patients with a normal AVP level (pAVP = 0.42 (pOs-280), r = 0.93, P less than 0.001). A relationship was demonstrated between the alteration in the AVP osmoregulation and the severity of the thyroid insufficiency. Patients with Addison's disease exhibited an increased basal level of plasma AVP (9.59 +/- 1.25 pmol/l) and a decreased osmotic threshold (pAVP = 0.42 (pOs-261), r = 0.63, P less than 0.01) contrasted to that of healthy volunteers (pAVP = 0.41 (pOs-280), r = 0.83, P less than 0.001). The osmoregulation disturbance of the AVP secretion may play a major role in the impaired water metabolism in primary hypothyroidism and in Addison's disease.
Brain Res. 1995 Jun 5;682(1-2):101-15.Click here to read Links
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Effect of hypothyroidism on vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-immunoreactive neurons in forebrain-neurohypophysial nuclei of the rat brain.
Toni R, Mosca S, Ruggeri F, Valmori A, Orlandi G, Toni G, Lechan RM, Vezzadini P.
Istituto di Anatomia Umana Normale, University of Bologna, Italy.
We have recently reported that hypothyroidism increases immunoreactive (IR)-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and VIP mRNA content in both parvocellular and magnocellular neurons of the rat, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). As VIP can stimulate vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we conducted an anatomical investigation to determine whether VIP-containing neurons in other regions of the brain that are involved with homeostatic mechanisms of water and salt conservation are also affected by hypothyroidism. The distribution and intensity of VIP immunostaining in neurons and fibers of the magnocellular-neurohypophysial system, including the hypothalamic PVN, supraoptic nucleus (SON) and accessory magnocellular cell groups, circumventricular subfornical organ (SFO), preoptic and anterior hypothalamus, midline thalamus, subthalamic zona incerta and posterior septal nuclei were studied using a highly sensitive immunocytochemical technique and unbiased neuronal counting methods, based on the optical dissector principle. Hypothyroidism increased the intensity of VIP immunostaining and/or the number/section, percentage and numerical density of IR-VIP neurons in the PVN, SON, nucleus circularis, periventricular preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus and SFO. In addition, IR-VIP perikarya and/or fibers in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and anterior periventricular nucleus, nucleus reuniens of the thalamus and dorsal fornix-triangular septal nucleus complex were also apparent in the hypothyroid animals while no immunostaining was seen in these areas in control animals. No quantitative and/or qualitative modifications in IR-VIP neurons and fibers were noted in the anterior hypothalamic area, suprachiasmatic nucleus, thalamic paraventricular nucles an subthalamic zona incerta between hypothyroid and control animals. These findings suggest an inverse relationship between thyroid hormone and VIP content and/or distribution of IR-VIP neurons in specific forebrain regions involved in the control of AVP release, extracellular fluid volume, thirst, blood pressure and anterior pituitary secretion. This raises the possibility that changes in fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function occurring in hypothyroidism may be mediated, at least in part, by VIP-producing neurons in diverse regions of the brain.
thirst and angiotensin II
glutathione and angiotensin II