A short protein description with the molecular wheight, isoforms, etc...
Use, when available, the link to Wikipedia (Es Trypsin)
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND IMAGES
When relevant for the function
- Primary structure
- Secondary structure
- Tertiary structure
- Quaternary structure
Protein Aminoacids Percentage
The Protein Aminoacids Percentage gives useful information on the local environment and the metabolic status of the cell (starvation, lack of essential AA, hypoxia)
Protein Aminoacids Percentage (Width 700 px)
SYNTHESIS AND TURNOVER
- Cell signaling and Ligand transport
Non-genomic and genomic effects of Prolactin
Nuclear localization and function of polypeptide ligands and their receptors: a new paradigm for hormone specificity within the mammary gland? 2003
Papers Skin Prolactin
Pregnancy hormones boost beta cells via serotonin 2010
Papers BH4 Prolactin
Treatment of BH4 deficiency, i.e. BH4, 5-hydroxytryptophan, and L-DOPA/carbidopa (the last named given in three doses per day), suppresses prolactin levels merely for a few hours. L-DOPA/carbidopa given at shorter intervals or, even better, as a slow release preparation, is more effective in suppressing prolactin levels. Our data indicate immense hyperprolactinemia but few other hormonal disturbances
Prolactin is primarily under tonic inhibitory control by the hypothalamus through the release of dopamine (DA). Several prolactin-releasing factors (PRFs) have been identified in the hypothalamus that may play a role under certain conditions such as suckling or stress. In the case of suckling (or breast stimulation), tonic inhibition of prolactin secretion is overridden by neurogenetic signals from the breast through a multisynaptic pathway that stimulates PRF and inhibits dopamine. Estrogen also induces hyperplasia and hypertrophy of prolactin cells and increases prolactin secretion.
Schematics representing the pathways through which serotonin may stimulate PRL secretion. See text for details. PVN, paraventricular nucleus; MFB, medial forebrain bundle; F, fornix; PRL, prolactin; ARC, arcuate nucleus; DA, dopamine; PRF, prolactin-releasing factor; VIP, vasoactive intestinal peptide; OT, oxytocin; TIDA, tuberoinfundibular dopamine pathway; OC, optic chiasm; 5-HT, serotonin; GABA, gamma-aminobutyric acid.
From Galactorrhea to Osteopenia: Rethinking Serotonin–Prolactin Interactions 2004
Dopamine - RED / Prolactin - BLUE dopamine drops, prolactin rises Research shows that prolactin surges immediately after orgasm in both men and women. Men may experience this prolactin surge as the "roll over and snore" phenomenon. In women, the effects may be delayed for days. We notice that the effects come and go for about two weeks.
There’s an inverse relationship between the levels of prolactin and dopamine; when one is up the other is down. This rise and fall may produce a dopamine/prolactin roller coaster of highs and lows. We suspect that prolactin, and this roller coaster, are aspects of the post-orgasm hangover.
Notice that in women excess prolactin is also associated with anxiety and hostility. Sound familiar? The following table lists symptoms of patients with chronically elevated prolactin. We think that after sex, prolactin surges may be subtle, but still noticeable in their effects. The symptoms could be due to the rises in prolactin or the consequent suppression of dopamine.
Loss of libido Loss of libido
Mood changes / depression Mood changes / depression
Hostility, anxiety Impotence
A possible role for lipoxygenase and epoxygenase arachidonate metabolites in prolactin release from pituitary cells. 1988
Therefore, the production of leukotrienes, HETEs, and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids may be necessary for the normal release of prolactin.
Angiotensin increases arachidonate metabolism in cultured anterior pituitary cells. 1989
The inhibitor of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway, indomethacin, did not significantly modify angiotensin II-induced prolactin release, whereas BW 755c and ETYA (inhibitors of cyclo-, lipo- and epoxygenase pathways) and NDGA (an inhibitor of leukotriene and epoxyeicosanoid synthesis) completely counteracted the effect of the octapeptide on hormone release.
Signs of increased testosterone levels Decreased testosterone levels
CAUSES AND MANAGEMENT OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC-INDUCED HYPERPROLACTINEMIA 2008
more at wellsphere.....
bromocriptina mesilato 2,87 mg, pari a 2,5 mg di bromocriptina base.
Prolactin blocks nuclear translocation of VDR by regulating its interaction with BRCA1 in osteosarcoma cells. 2009
Prolactin and BRCA1
Androsterone etiocolanone alti
Effects of sulpiride on levels of FSH, LH and steroid hormones. 1984
- In order to study the effects of prolactin upon the gonadotrophins and steroid hormones, hyperprolactinaemia was induced by the administration of sulpiride. 12 men between the ages of 18 and 20 were given 3 capsules of 50 mg of sulpiride daily for a period of 15 days, and the following parameters being measured before and after the treatment: (prolactine, FSH, LH, testosterone, estradiol, ACTH and DHEA-S) by RIA, (cortisol) by fluorimetry and (etiocholanone, androsterone, pregnandiol, pregnantriol, pregnantriolone, 11-keto etiocholanone and 11-OH androsterone) by gas chromatography. Our results show that on termination of the treatment there was a significant rise in the prolactin and DHEA-S serum levels and a drop in the FSH serum levels but not of LH. In addition there was a marked increase in all the androgen levels studied, (etiocholanone, androsterone and 11-keto etiocholanone) with the exception of testosterone.
Stimulatory action of prolactin on gonadotropin secretion in vitro, 1989
"Oestradiol negative feedback inhibition on LH secretion during lactation is prolonged in adolescent primiparous rhesus monkeys. 1993":
With respect to oestradiol negative feedback inhibition of LH, oestradiol treatment effectively suppressed serum LH concentrations at all points during lactation up to week 31, at which time LH concentrations were maximally suppressed in both Prp and Mlt mothers at +6 days after treatment but by day +13 LH values were significantly higher in Mlt females.
Transforming growth factor-beta promotes differentiation of ovarian thecal-interstitial cells but inhibits androgen production. 1989
Treatment with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) together with LH caused a synergistic increase in androsterone production.
Blood glucose and prolactin in hyperprolactinemic rats exposed to restraint and surgical stress. 1996
Chronic hyperprolactinemia induced a higher (restraint) or longer lasting (surgery) hyperglycemic response in the rat, adding new evidence for a diabetogenic effect of PRL.
Insulin sensitivity and hyperprolactinemia. 2003
It has been shown that prolactin (PRL) induces glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in several animal species.
Is hyperprolactinemia associated with insulin resistance in non-obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome?, 2003
Moderate elevations in serum PRL concentration may contribute to insulin resistance in PCOS.
The role of endocannabinoids in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release. Differences between the effects of AEA and 2AG. 2008
The mechanism of action of cytokines to control the release of hypothalamic and pituitary hormones in infection. 2000
- IL-1 alpha inhibits growth hormone (GH) release by inhibiting GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) release, which is mediated by NO, and stimulating the somatostatin release, also mediated by NO. IL-1 alpha-induced stimulation of PRL release is also mediated by intrahypothlamic action of NO, which inhibits release of the PRL-inhibiting hormone dopamine.
Role of nitric oxide in the neuroendocrine responses to cytokines. 1998
- The actions of NO are brought about by its combined activation of guanylate cyclase-liberating cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and activation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase with liberation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotrienes, respectively.
Nitric oxide controls the hypothalamic-pituitary response to cytokines. 1997
- The actions of NO are brought about by its combined activation of guanylate cyclase liberating cyclic guanosine monophosphate and activation of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, with the liberation of prostaglandin E2 and leukotrienes, respectively.
The role of nitric oxide (NO) in control of hypothalamic-pituitary function. 1996
- The NOS diffuses to the LHRH terminal and activates guanylate cyclase (GC), cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase causing the release of LHRH via the release of cyclic GMP, PGE2, and leukotrienes, respectively.
Prolactin directly enhances bone turnover by raising osteoblast-expressed receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand/osteoprotegerin ratio. 2008 fulltext
- Hyperprolactinemia leads to high bone turnover as a result of enhanced bone formation and resorption. Although its osteopenic effect has long been explained as hyperprolactinemia-induced hypogonadism, identified prolactin (PRL) receptors in osteoblasts suggested a possible direct action of PRL on bone. In the present study, we found that hyperprolactinemia induced by anterior pituitary transplantation (AP), with or without ovariectomy (Ovx), had no detectable effect on bone mineral density and content measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). However, histomorphometric studies revealed increases in the osteoblast and osteoclast surfaces in the AP rats, but a decrease in the osteoblast surface in the AP+Ovx rats. The resorptive activity was predominant since bone volume and trabecular number were decreased, and the trabecular separation was increased in both groups. Estrogen supplement (E2) fully reversed the effect of estrogen depletion in the Ovx but not in the AP+Ovx rats. In contrast to the typical Ovx rats, bone formation and resorption became uncoupled in the AP+Ovx rats. Therefore, hyperprolactinemia was likely to have some estrogen-independent and/or direct actions on bone turnover. Osteoblast-expressed PRL receptor transcripts and proteins shown in the present study confirmed our hypothesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the osteoblast-like cells, MG-63, directly exposed to PRL exhibited lower expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA, and a decrease in alkaline phosphatase activity. The ratios of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) proteins were increased, indicating an increase in the osteoclastic bone resorption. The present data thus demonstrated that hyperprolactinemia could act directly on bone to stimulate bone turnover, with more influence on bone resorption than formation. PRL enhanced bone resorption in part by increasing RANKL and decreasing OPG expressions by osteoblasts.