CMV and NO
Role of IFN-gamma-induced indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the replication of human cytomegalovirus in retinal pigment epithelial cells. 1999
- An in vitro model of human CMV infection of primary retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells was used to study the effects of cytokines on CMV replication in these cells, which are targets of CMV infection in vivo. IFN-gamma and IFN-beta were potent inhibitors of CMV replication in RPE cells, while TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, or TGF-beta2 did not affect viral replication. Inhibition by IFN-gamma, and to a lesser extent IFN-beta, was almost completely reversed by addition of L-tryptophan to the culture medium, strongly implicating the indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) pathway. Polyadenylated IDO mRNA accumulation was detected as early as 2 h after IFN stimulation. Furthermore, CMV blocked the production of nitric oxide by the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase. This inhibition depended on a functional viral genome. However, exogenous nitric oxide significantly inhibited viral protein expression in RPE cells. Thus, CMV infection blocks the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway activated by IFN-gamma and IL-1beta, but cannot counteract the IFN-induced IDO pathway, which ultimately controls its replication in primary human RPE cells.
CMV and Hypertension
Cytomegalovirus and Hypertension
anti-cmv IgG and hypertension
Cytomegalovirus Infection Causes an Increase of Arterial Blood Pressure 2009
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common infection in adults (seropositive 60–99% globally), and is associated with cardiovascular diseases, in line with risk factors such as hypertension and atherosclerosis. Several viral infections are linked to hypertension, including human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) and HIV-1. The mechanisms of how viral infection contributes to hypertension or increased blood pressure are not defined. In this report, the role of CMV infection as a cause of increased blood pressure and in forming aortic atherosclerotic plaques is examined. Using in vivo mouse model and in vitro molecular biology analyses, we find that CMV infection alone caused a significant increase in arterial blood pressure (ABp) (p<0.01∼0.05), measured by microtip catheter technique. This increase in blood pressure by mouse CMV (MCMV) was independent of atherosclerotic plaque formation in the aorta, defined by histological analyses. MCMV DNA was detected in blood vessel samples of viral infected mice but not in the control mice by nested PCR assay. MCMV significantly increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and MCP-1 in mouse serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Using quantitative real time reverse transcriptase PCR (Q-RT-PCR) and Western blot, we find that CMV stimulated expression of renin in mouse and human cells in an infectious dose-dependent manner. Co-staining and immunofluorescent microscopy analyses showed that MCMV infection stimulated renin expression at a single cell level. Further examination of angiotensin-II (Ang II) in mouse serum and arterial tissues with ELISA showed an increased expression of Ang II by MCMV infection. Consistent with the findings of the mouse trial, human CMV (HCMV) infection of blood vessel endothelial cells (EC) induced renin expression in a non-lytic infection manner. Viral replication kinetics and plaque formation assay showed that an active, CMV persistent infection in EC and expression of viral genes might underpin the molecular mechanism. These results show that CMV infection is a risk factor for increased arterial blood pressure, and is a co-factor in aortic atherosclerosis. Viral persistent infection of EC may underlie the mechanism. Control of CMV infection can be developed to restrict hypertension and atherosclerosis in the cardiovascular system.
Is human cytomegalovirus infection associated with essential hypertension? A meta-analysis of 11,878 participants. 2016
- Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has been reported to be highly expressed in essential hypertension (EH), and it has been proposed that HCMV infection may contribute to EH development. However, different studies showed opposite results. The present meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between HCMV infection and the risk of EH. All relevant literature from 1980 to 2015 was extracted from six electronic databases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association of HCMV infection and risk of EH. Sensitivity analysis and examination for bias were conducted to evaluate cumulative evidence of the association. The random-effect model using the Mantel-Haenszel method was used to give the individual effect-size estimates. Of the 11,878 participants included in this study, there were 3,864 EH patients and 8,014 control subjects. Meta-analysis of nine studies performed in a random-effect model found that EH patients had a higher risk of HCMV infection than normal control subjects (OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.13-1.90, P = 0.004; heterogeneity: I(2) = 66%, P = 0.002). Sensitivity analysis and bias examination showed the overall quality and consistency of the studies to be acceptable. For subgroup analysis, studies of Chinese populations were selected for further analysis. There was a significant association between HCMV infection and EH among Chinese patients (OR = 2.18, 95%CI:1.43-3.31, P = 0.0003) but not among other ethnic groups (OR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.95-1.31, P = 0.19). These findings provide quantitative support for the association between HCMV infection and high risk of EH in individuals of Chinese ethnicity.
CMV and metabolism
Dynamics of the Cellular Metabolome during Human Cytomegalovirus Infection 2006
- Viral replication requires energy and macromolecular precursors derived from the metabolic network of the host cell. Despite this reliance, the effect of viral infection on host cell metabolic composition remains poorly understood. Here we applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 63 different intracellular metabolites at multiple times after human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of human fibroblasts. Parallel microarray analysis provided complementary data on transcriptional regulation of metabolic pathways. As the infection progressed, the levels of metabolites involved in glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis markedly increased. HCMV-induced transcriptional upregulation of specific glycolytic and citric acid cycle enzymes mirrored the increases in metabolite levels. The peak levels of numerous metabolites during infection far exceeded those observed during normal fibroblast growth or quiescence, demonstrating that HCMV markedly disrupts cellular metabolic homeostasis and institutes its own specific metabolic program.
anti-cmv IgG and hypertension
Camera, ok mozioni per contrasto a citomegalovirus - DottNet 10.02.2017
In the case of relative Iron deficiency (ferritin < 90 ug/dl) iron administration can reduce symptoms