Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 08/07/2010


Edema (American English), oedema or œdema (British English), is the increase of interstitial fluid in any organ, resulting in swelling or effusion (pleura, peritoneum, pericardium).

General causes:

Vessel increased permeability induced by VEGF, whose expression is regulated by:

Regulation by prostaglandin E2 and histamine of angiogenesis in inflammatory granulation tissue. 2003

  • These findings suggest that PGE2 and histamine augment angiogenesis in the inflammatory granulation tissue by inducing VEGF production, and histamine induces VEGF production possibly through the H2 receptor--cAMP--protein kinase A pathway.

Decreased plasma osmotic pressure (hypoalbuminemia)

  • low proteins intake
  • chronic infectious diseases
  • albuminuria

Local risk factors:

  • hands and feet
  • joints
  • internal ear
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