Microalbuminuria and Macroalbuminuria
Urine Tests

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 19/07/2011



A short yet comprehensive description

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Specificity, sensitivity etc.

Diagnostic Algorithms


Open Questions

Working Hypothesis

Changes in Albuminuria Predict Mortality and Morbidity in Patients with Vascular Disease. 2011
J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 Jul;22(7):1353-1364. Epub 2011 Jun 30.

The degree of albuminuria predicts cardiovascular and renal outcomes, but it is not known whether changes in albuminuria also predict similar outcomes. In two multicenter, multinational, prospective observational studies, a central laboratory measured albuminuria in 23,480 patients with vascular disease or high-risk diabetes. We quantified the association between a greater than or equal to twofold change in albuminuria in spot urine from baseline to 2 years and the incidence of cardiovascular and renal outcomes and all-cause mortality during the subsequent 32 months. A greater than or equal to twofold increase in albuminuria from baseline to 2 years, observed in 28%, associated with nearly 50% higher mortality (HR 1.48; 95% CI 1.32 to 1.66), and a greater than or equal to twofold decrease in albuminuria, observed in 21%, associated with 15% lower mortality (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.74 to 0.98) compared with those with lesser changes in albuminuria, after adjustment for baseline albuminuria, BP, and other potential confounders. Increases in albuminuria also significantly associated with cardiovascular death, composite cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure), and renal outcomes including dialysis or doubling of serum creatinine (adjusted HR 1.40; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.78). In conclusion, in patients with vascular disease, changes in albuminuria predict mortality and cardiovascular and renal outcomes, independent of baseline albuminuria. This suggests that monitoring albuminuria is a useful strategy to help predict cardiovascular risk.

Prevention of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension., 2012

The average BP was 126.3/74.7 and 129.5/76.6 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.001). Olmesartan delayed the time to onset of microalbuminuria by 25% (hazard ratio = 0.75; 95% confidence interval = 0.61-0.92, P = 0.007).

Renal function and electrolyte levels in hyperthyroidism: urinary protein excretion and the plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, uric acid, hydrogen ion and electrolytes. 1989

In order to help clarify the effects of hyperthyroidism on renal function and electrolyte metabolism, we measured the venous plasma concentrations of urea, creatinine, urate, hydrogen ion and electrolytes, and the urinary concentrations of total protein, albumin, retinol-binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase activity, and creatinine in patients when hyperthyroid and again after they had been euthyroid for at least 4 months. Significant (P less than 0.05) decreases in the mean plasma concentrations of urate and chloride and significant increases in creatinine, total CO2 and hydrogen ion mean concentrations were observed when the patients became euthyroid. The mean concentrations of sodium, potassium and urea did not change significantly. The values of the ratios total protein/creatinine, albumin/creatinine, N-acetylglucosaminidase/creatinine and retinol-binding protein/creatinine were all significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated in random urine specimens obtained from hyperthyroid patients as compared to the values when euthyroid. Mild proteinuria occurs in most thyrotoxic patients which does not appear to be due predominantly to either glomerular or tubular renal injury. The changes in plasma analytes that were observed may be attributed to increases in glomerular filtration rate and tissue nucleic acid turnover and a tendency to respiratory alkalosis in the hyperthyroid patients.

proteinuria hyperthyroidism

Development of hyperthyroidism in a patient with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. 2002

We present a 13-year-old boy who developed hyperthyroidism during the clinical course of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome treated with glucocorticoid. He had a second relapse of minimal change nephrotic syndrome, and complete remission of nephrotic syndrome was achieved immediately with oral glucocorticoid. However, when the steroid dosage was reduced, signs of hyperthyroidism such as systolic hypertension and tachycardia were observed. Laboratory findings revealed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) below 0.05 microU/ml, free tri-iodothyronine of 16.1 pg/ml, free thyroxine of 5.6 ng/dl, and anti-TSH receptor antibody of 90%. Thus, a diagnosis of hyperthyroidism was made and treatment with thiamazol was started. Massive proteinuria may decrease the activity of hyperthyroidism due to urinary loss of thyroid hormones. A decrease in glucocorticoid dosage may also be involved in the development of hyperthyroidism due to a reduced immunosuppressive effect.

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