Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina. In physiological literature, it is given the name 22:6(n-3). It can be synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid or obtained directly from maternal milk (breast milk), fish oil, or algae oil.
Resolvins are a family of n-3 lipid mediators initially identified in resolving inflammatory exudates that temper inflammatory responses to promote catabasis. Here, temporal metabololipidomics with selflimited resolving exudates revealed that resolvin (Rv) D3 has a distinct time frame from other lipid mediators, appearing late in the resolution phase. Using synthetic materials prepared by stereocontrolled total organic synthesis and metabololipidomics, we established complete stereochemistry of RvD3 and its aspirin-triggered 17R-epimer (ATRvD3). Both synthetic resolvins potently regulated neutrophils and mediators, reducing murine peritonitis and dermal inflammation. RvD3 and AT-RvD3 displayed leukocyte-directed actions, e.g., blocking human neutrophil transmigration and enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and efferocytosis. These results position RvD3 uniquely within the inflammation-resolution time frame to vantage and contribute to the beneficial actions of aspirin and essential n-3 fatty acids.
Resolvin D3 and Aspirin-Triggered Resolvin D3 Are Potent Immunoresolvents