Renin - Angiotensin - Aldosterone - System
glutathione and angiotensin II
Role of glutathione biosynthesis in endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis, 2018
- Glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis is essential for cellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense. The rate-limiting step requires glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of the catalytic (GCLc) and the modulatory (GCLm) subunits. To evaluate the contribution of GCLc to endothelial function we generated an endothelial-specific Gclc haplo-insufficient mouse model (Gclc e/+ mice). In murine lung endothelial cells (MLEC) derived from these mice we observed a 50% reduction in GCLc levels compared to lung fibroblasts from the same mice. MLEC obtained from haplo-insufficient mice showed significant reduction in GSH levels as well as increased basal and stimulated ROS levels, reduced phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser 1177) and increased eNOS S-glutathionylation, compared to MLEC from wild type (WT) mice. Studies in mesenteric arteries demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Gclc(e/+) male mice, which was corrected by pre-incubation with GSH-ethyl-ester and BH4. To study the contribution of endothelial GSH synthesis to renal fibrosis we employed the unilateral ureteral obstruction model in WT and Gclc(e/+) mice. We observed that obstructed kidneys from Gclc(e/+) mice exhibited increased deposition of fibrotic markers and reduced Nrf2 levels. We conclude that the preservation of endothelial GSH biosynthesis is not only critical for endothelial function but also in anti-fibrotic responses.
Lipoic Acid Supplementation Prevents Angiotensin II-induced Renal Injury 2003
Background: Angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced renal injury is associated with perivascular inflammation, cell proliferation, and increased superoxide production in the vascular wall. We tested whether lipoic acid, an endogenous antioxidant, protects against the Ang II-induced inflammatory response and end-organ damage.
Methods: Light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, Northern blots, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used in kidneys from double transgenic rats (dTGR) harboring human renin and angiotensinogen genes and normotensive Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The effects of lipoic acid supplementation for three weeks were examined in dTGR and SD rats.
Results: Lipoic acid effectively prevented Ang II-induced glomerular and vascular damage in the kidneys and completely prevented the development of albuminuria. Ang II-induced leukocyte infiltration and cell proliferation in the kidney were attenuated. The redox-sensitive transcription factors nuclear factor (kappa) B (NF-kappa B) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) in the kidneys were increased in dTGR compared with SD, and were effectively reduced. Renal glutathione levels were much higher in dTGR than in SD, while the opposite was true for cysteine levels. These results suggested increased renal glutathione oxidation in dTGR, leading to cysteine shortage. Lipoic acid partly prevented renal cysteine depletion and increased hepatic cysteine and glutathione concentrations. This effect was accompanied by increased hepatic gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase mRNA expression.
Conclusion: Our in vivo results suggest that lipoic acid protects against Ang II-induced renal injury through anti-inflammatory/antioxidative mechanisms. The effects are associated with decreased NF-kappa B and AP-1 activation, as well as improved thiol homeostasis.