Marcatori del danno metabolico nel COVID
I sintomi del COVID-19

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 20/08/2023


TNFAND mitochondria

TNF-α mediates mitochondrial uncoupling and enhances ROS-dependent cell migration via NF-κB activation in liver cells, 2014

  • Abstract
    Development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is accompanied by a continuous increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. To investigate the primary source of ROS in liver cells, we used tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as stimulus. Applying inhibitors against the respiratory chain complexes, we identified mitochondria as primary source of ROS production. TNF-α altered mitochondrial integrity by mimicking a mild uncoupling effect in liver cells, as indicated by a 40% reduction in membrane potential and ATP depletion (35%). TNF-α-induced ROS production activated NF-κB 3.5-fold and subsequently enhanced migration up to 12.7-fold. This study identifies complex I and complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain as point of release of ROS upon TNF-α stimulation of liver cells, which enhances cell migration by activating NF-κB signalling.
    "Reduced mitochondrial activity in colonocytes facilitates AMPKα2-dependent inflammation, 2017":

… colon cells stimulated with TNF-α, with IL-8 being highly expressed. We found in colon cells
that TNF-α-mediated IL-8 expression is facilitated by reduced mitochondrial activity through …

Specific inhibition of the redox activity of ape1/ref-1 by e3330 blocks tnf-α-induced activation of IL-8 production in liver cancer cell lines, 2013

… cytokines production (IL-8 and IL-6) triggered by FAs accumulation and TNF-α stimulation
in hepatic cancer cell lines. In this pathway, mitochondrial impairment and resulting oxidative …

Increased expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 in HALS: implications for reduced adiponectin expression and plasma levels, 2003

  • Abstract
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is a side effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy of HIV-infected patients; however, the mechanism of the lipodystrophy and insulin resistance seen in this syndrome remains elusive. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific protein, is thought to play an important role in regulating insulin sensitivity. We investigated circulating levels and gene expression of adiponectin in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (AT) from 18 HIV-infected patients with HALS compared with 18 HIV-infected patients without HALS. Implications of cytokines for adiponectin levels were investigated by determining circulating levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 as well as gene expression of these cytokines in AT. HALS patients exhibited 40% reduced plasma adiponectin levels (P < 0.05) compared with non-HALS subjects. Correspondingly, adiponectin mRNA levels in AT were reduced by >50% (P = 0.06). HALS patients were insulin resistant, and a positive correlation was found between plasma adiponectin and insulin sensitivity (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) and percent limb fat (r = 0.61, P < 0.01). AT mRNA of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 was increased in AT of HALS subjects (P < 0.05), and both AT TNF-α mRNA and plasma TNF-α were negatively correlated to plasma adiponectin (P < 0.05). Finally, TNF-α was found in vitro to inhibit human AT adiponectin mRNA by 80% (P < 0.05). In conclusion, HALS patients have reduced levels of plasma adiponectin and adiponectin mRNA in AT. Increased cytokine mRNA in AT is hypothesized to exert an inhibitory effect on adiponectin gene expression and, consequently, to play a role in the reduced plasma adiponectin levels found in HALS patients.

serum triglycerides AND mitochondria and il-8

Caprylic acid and medium-chain triglycerides inhibit IL-8 gene transcription in Caco-2 cells: comparison with the potent histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, 2009

Niacin inhibits fat accumulation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokine IL-8 in cultured hepatocytes: Impact on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, 2015

… on defining the pharmacological role of niacin in decreasing plasma triglycerides, low-density
lipoproteins, and increasing high-density lipoproteins related to atherosclerosis (reviewed …

fibrinogen and d-dimer

Il d-dimero è segno di quanta fibrina viene digerita in un dato momento. Pertanto sarà più alto sia nella proliferazione dei tumori che nell'attivazione del sistema immunitario, nella riparazione dei traumi o nelle trombosi.

Ci si può attendere che qualunque stimolo infiammatorio che aumenti la sintesi del fibrinogeno, un'aumento della fibrina e di conseguenza del d-dimero porti ad un aumento della proliferazione dei tumori, in maniera particolarmente rapida.


Mean serum D-dimer level to predict in-hospital mortality in Covid-19 patients, 2021


Necessità di Booster

The pronounced decline of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike trimeric IgG and RBD IgG in baseline seronegative individuals six months after BNT162b2 vaccination is consistent with the need for vaccine boosters, 2021

Come è la risposta in fibrinogeno e d-dimero in queste persone?

Attività fisica

covid AND physical activity

Physical activity: Benefits and challenges during the COVID‐19 pandemic, 2020

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