Brain Iron Metabolism
Progetto MRI Alzheimer

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 29/07/2008


Increased serum ferritin levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients 2008

Abstract. Nitric acid esters such as glyceryl trinitrate were introduced into therapy more than a century ago and are still widely used for the treatment of myocardial ischemia and its main symptom angina pectoris. The basic mechanisms responsible for the vasodilatory and anti-ischemic action of organic nitrates involve bioactivation of, and nitric oxide (NO) release from, these compounds which have therefore been termed NO donors. The organic nitrate pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is known to possess antioxidant properties that are thought to be the underlying cause for its specific pharmacological profile. In contrast to other long-acting nitrates, PETN induces tolerance- free vasodilation in humans and was reported to prevent endothelial dysfunction as well as atherogenesis in cholesterol- fed rabbits. However, the exact nature of the vasoprotective signaling pathways triggered by PETN has remained obscure.
The present study demonstrates that the active PETN metabolite PETriN stimulates protein expression of the antioxidant defense protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; Figures 1 and 2). Additionally, PETriN enhanced the enzymatic activity of HO-1 measured as formation of the HO-1 metabolites bilirubin (Figure 3) and carbon monoxide (Figure 4) in lysates from endothelial cells. HO-1 induction subsequently led to a marked increase in protein expression of a second antioxidant protein, ferritin, via the HO-1-dependent release of free iron from endogenous heme sources (Figures 1 and 5). Pretreatment of endothelial cells with PETriN was followed by increased cellular resistance to oxidant injury mediated by hydrogen peroxide (Figure 6). Endothelial protection by PETriN was mimicked by exogenous bilirubin which led to an almost complete reversal of hydrogen peroxide-induced toxicity (Figure 8). Increased HO-1 and ferritin expression as well as endothelial protection occurred at micromolar concentrations of PETriN which are well within the range of plasma or tissue levels that can be expected during oral therapy. The capacity to protect the endothelium in vitro may translate into and explain the previously observed antiatherogenic actions of PETN in vivo.
In this study, another long-acting nitrate, isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), did not protect endothelial cells from oxidant damage (Figure 6). The absence of significant cytoprotection in the presence of ISDN was paralleled by a lack of HO-1 and ferritin stimulatory capacity (Figures 2 and 5). ISDN had no significant effect on carbon monoxide release or bilirubin formation (Figures 3 and 4). These observations are in agreement with results demonstrating small or nondetectable amounts of NO released from ISDN and its active metabolite isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN) measured as cyclic GMP formation in RFL-6 reporter cells (Figure 7). Interestingly and in contrast to PETN, isosorbide nitrates are known to induce tolerance to their cardiovascular effects, presumably via oxidant stress. Moreover, in earlier investigations aimed at assessing the antiatherogenic potential of nitrates, PETN but not isosorbide nitrates prevented plaque formation and endothelial dysfunction in animal models of atherosclerosis. Thus, the ability to activate HO-1 induction and associated antioxidant pathways apparently distinguishes PETN from other long-acting nitrates and may explain their different patterns of action in vivo (Figure 9).

Glutathione depletion in hippocampal cells increases levels of H and L ferritin and glutathione S-transferase mRNAs 2007

Neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: the role of oxidative stress and altered homeostasis of metals 2003 Why motor neurones?

HTLV-I-associated myelopathy: Are ferritin, S100¯ protein, or guanine nucleotides CSF markers

of disease?

The manganese superoxide dismutase Ala16Val dimorphism modulates iron accumulation in human hepatoma cells.2008
Nahon P, Charnaux N, Friand V, Prost-Squarcioni C, Ziol M, Lièvre N, Trinchet JC, Beaugrand M, Gattegno L, Pessayre D, Sutton A.

The Ala/16Val dimorphism incorporates alanine (Ala) or valine (Val) in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), modifying MnSOD mitochondrial import and activity. In alcoholic cirrhotic patients, the Ala-MnSOD allele is associated with hepatic iron accumulation and an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The Ala-MnSOD variant could modulate the expression of proteins involved in iron storage (cytosolic ferritin), uptake (transferrin receptors, TfR-1 and-2), extrusion (hepcidin), and intracellular distribution (frataxin) to trigger hepatic iron accumulation. We therefore assessed the Ala/Val-MnSOD genotype and the hepatic iron score in 162 alcoholic cirrhotic patients. In our cohort, this hepatic iron score increased with the number of Ala-MnSOD alleles. We also transfected Huh7 cells with Ala-MnSOD-or Val-MnSOD-encoding plasmids and assessed cellular iron, MnSOD activity, and diverse mRNAs and proteins. In Huh7 cells, MnSOD activity was higher after Ala-MnSOD transfection than after Val-MnSOD transfection. Additionally, iron supplementation decreased transfected MnSOD proteins and activities. Ala-MnSOD transfection increased the mRNAs and proteins of ferritin, hepcidin, and TfR2, decreased the expression of frataxin, and caused cellular iron accumulation. In contrast, Val-MnSOD transfection had limited effects. In conclusion, the Ala-MnSOD variant favors hepatic iron accumulation by modulating the expression of proteins involved in iron homeostasis.

Erythrocyte CuZn superoxide dismutase activity is decreased in iron-deficiency anemia.2006

Superoxide dismutase 1 modulates expression of transferrin receptor. 2006

New world clade B arenaviruses can use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1)-dependent and -independent entry pathways, and glycoproteins from human pathogenic strains are associated with the use of TfR1.2008

Flanagan ML, Oldenburg J, Reignier T, Holt N, Hamilton GA, Martin VK, Cannon PM.

Saban Research Institute of Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90027, USA.

Arenaviruses are rodent-borne viruses, with five members of the family capable of causing severe hemorrhagic fevers if transmitted to humans. To date, two distinct cellular receptors have been identified that are used by different pathogenic viruses, alpha-dystroglycan by Lassa fever virus and transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) by certain New World clade B viruses. Our previous studies have suggested that other, as-yet-unknown receptors are involved in arenavirus entry. In the present study, we examined the use of TfR1 by the glycoproteins (GPs) from a panel of New World clade B arenaviruses comprising three pathogenic and two nonpathogenic strains. Interestingly, we found that TfR1 was only used by the GPs from the pathogenic viruses, with entry of the nonpathogenic strains being TfR1 independent. The pathogenic GPs could also direct entry into cells by TfR1-independent pathways, albeit less efficiently. A comparison of the abilities of TfR1 orthologs from different species to support arenavirus entry found that the human and feline receptors were able to enhance entry of the pathogenic strains, but that neither the murine or canine forms were functional. Since the ability to use TfR1 is a characteristic feature of the human pathogens, this interaction may represent an important target in the treatment of New World hemorrhagic fevers. In addition, the ability to use TfR1 may be a useful tool to predict the likelihood that any existing or newly discovered viruses in this family could infect humans.

Diabete, demenza e danno cerebrale
I soggetti affetti da demenza presentano due diversi tipi di danno cerebrale, sulla base della presenza o meno di diabete: i pazienti con demenza non diabetici hanno un maggior carico di peptide beta-amiloide e maggiori danni da radicali liberi, mentre le loro controparti diabetiche presentano una maggiore quantità di infarti microvascolari ed un maggior grado di infiammazione del tessuto neurale. Questa nuova caratterizzazione del danno cerebrale ha importanti implicazioni eziologiche e terapeutiche: nei pazienti diabetici, una terapia efficace dovrebbe idealmente sopprimere gli effetti della malattia sui piccoli vasi, ma in questi pazienti si osserva invece una maggiore incidenza degli infarti microvascolari. Ciò potrebbe non indicare un effetto paradosso della terapia su questi ultimi, ma piuttosto una maggiore gravità della malattia stessa nei pazienti trattati, come indicato anche dai maggiori livelli glicemici rilevati. (Arch Neurol online 2009, pubblicato il 12/1)

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