The whole picture
As a whole mitochondria are more similar to "spaghetti" or to a sponge than to classical cartoons.
Rizzuto Rosario, 2014
The mitochondrial calcium uniporter regulates breast cancer progression via HIF‐1α, 2016
Calcium at the Center of Cell Signaling: Interplay between Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, and Lysosomes, 2016
The origin and early evolution of mitochondria, 2001
The space between the internal and external membrane has a pH ranging from to according to the respiratory rate.
Factors affecting respiratory rate are:
- Oxygen supply
- Nutrients supply
- Cofactors availability (NAD, FAD)
Mechanism of Protons pumping
Filosofia del mitocondrio da vedere
Neuronal glutamate processing and transport. Glutamate is processed by the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in preparation for fast axonal transport, which also requires other transport proteins and mitochondria. When glutamate emerges from the "trans" face of the Golgi apparatus, it is encapsulated inside a neurosecretory vesicle, which consists of a bilipid membrane. These vesicles are transported down the axon along microtubule tracks to be deposited at the tip of the axon near the presynaptic membrane. Waves of axonal membrane depolarization would trigger the release of the glutamate into the synaptic space by exocytosis, which is exhibited by the merging of the neurosecretory vesicles with the postsynaptic membrane to free the packaged glutamate. The empty vesicle would then be recycled back to the neuronal body by retrograde transport along the microtubular tracks (adapted from )
Active Dendrites in Motor Neurons 2004
Human Mitochondrial Protein Database
They are estimated to contain between 1000 and 1500 different proteins (Pagliarini et al. 2008; Sickmann et al. 2003), which are distributed across two aqueous compartments (the matrix and intermembrane space) and an inner and outer membrane. While the vast majority of these
proteins are nuclear-encoded and thus imported from their site of synthesis in the cytosol, the remaining proteins (13 in humans) are encoded by a small mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), synthesized in the matrix, and, in many cases, assembled together with imported protein subunits into large protein complexes. Diverse functions of mitochondrial AAA+ proteins: protein activation, disaggregation, and degradation. 2010
Integral Membrane Proteins
The Inner Membrane
The inner membrane contains 5 complexes of integral membrane proteins:
* NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I)
* succinate dehydrogenase (Complex II)
* cytochrome c reductase (Complex III; also known as the cytochrome b-c1 complex)
* cytochrome c oxidase (Complex IV)
* ATP synthase (Complex V)
Measure of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential (D y ) with the Fluorescent Probe JC-1
Mitochondrial Proteins Expression
Hypothalamic malonyl-CoA triggers mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative gene expression in skeletal muscle: Role of PGC-1alpha. 2006 Fulltext
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 17;103(42):15410-5. Epub 2006 Oct 9.
Previous investigations show that intracerebroventricular administration of a potent inhibitor of fatty acid synthase, C75, increases the level of its substrate, malonyl-CoA, in the hypothalamus. The "malonyl-CoA signal" is rapidly transmitted to skeletal muscle by the sympathetic nervous system, increasing fatty acid oxidation, uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression, and thus, energy expenditure. Here, we show that intracerebroventricular or intraperitoneal administration of C75 increases the number of mitochondria in white and red (soleus) skeletal muscle. Consistent with signal transmission from the hypothalamus by the sympathetic nervous system, centrally administered C75 rapidly (< or =2 h) up-regulated the expression (in skeletal muscle) of the beta-adrenergic signaling molecules, i.e., norepinephrine, beta3-adrenergic receptor, and cAMP; the transcriptional regulators peroxisomal proliferator activator regulator gamma coactivator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and estrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha); and the expression of key oxidative mitochondrial enzymes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, medium-chain length fatty acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, ubiquinone-cytochrome c reductase, cytochrome oxidase, as well as ATP synthase and UCP3. The role of PGC-1alpha in mediating these responses in muscle was assessed with C2C12 myocytes in cell culture. Consistent with the in vivo response, adenovirus-directed expression of PGC-1alpha in C2C12 muscle cells provoked the phosphorylation/inactivation and reduced expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, causing a reduction of the malonyl-CoA concentration. These effects, coupled with an increased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b, led to increased fatty acid oxidation. PGC-1alpha also increased the expression of ERRalpha, PPARalpha, and enzymes that support mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, ATP synthesis, and thermogenesis, apparently mediated by an increased expression of UCP3.
Branched-chain amino acid supplementation promotes survival and supports cardiac and skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis in middle-aged mice. 2010
Cell Metab. 2010 Oct 6;12(4):362-72.
- Recent evidence points to a strong relationship between increased mitochondrial biogenesis and increased survival in eukaryotes. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been shown to extend chronological life span in yeast. However, the role of these amino acids in mitochondrial biogenesis and longevity in mammals is unknown. Here, we show that a BCAA-enriched mixture (BCAAem) increased the average life span of mice. BCAAem supplementation increased mitochondrial biogenesis and sirtuin 1 expression in primary cardiac and skeletal myocytes and in cardiac and skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue and liver of middle-aged mice, and this was accompanied by enhanced physical endurance. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) defense system genes were upregulated, and ROS production was reduced by BCAAem supplementation. All of the BCAAem-mediated effects were strongly attenuated in endothelial nitric oxide synthase null mutant mice. These data reveal an important antiaging role of BCAAs mediated by mitochondrial biogenesis in mammals.
The Origin of Mitochondria, 2010
Comparison of mitochondia
Selective loss of mitochondrial genome can be caused by certain unsaturated fatty acids. 1983
Various unsaturated fatty acids had different effectiveness for maintaining the continued replication of functional mitochondria in an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (KD115). Certain isomers of octadecenoic acid (i.e., cis-9) and eicosatrienoic acid (i.e.,cis-8,11,14) permitted continued replication of mitochondria and provided cultures that contained only 4 to 5% cells that formed petite colonies. On the other hand, cultures grown with cis-12- or cis-13-octadecenoic acid or cis-11,14,17-eicosatrienoic acid, produced a 12- to 16-fold greater frequency of petite mutants (50-60%) after 8 to 10 generations of growth. The production of the petite mutants occurred despite adequate incorporation of these unsaturated fatty acids into cellular phospholipids and an apparently normal ability to undergo the initial steps in the induction of cellular respiration. The evidence suggests that some cellular processes necessary for continued mitochondrial replication depend on the structural features of the fatty acyl chains as well as the overall content of unsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids. Impairment of that process by certain inadequate fatty acids or by an inadequate supply of a suitable fatty acid leads to a permanent loss of the mitochondrial genome from the cells of subsequent generations.
Mitochondrial Quality Control as a Therapeutic Target, 2016
In addition to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), mitochondria perform other functions such as heme biosynthesis and oxygen sensing and mediate calcium homeostasis, cell growth, and cell death. They participate in cell communication and regulation of inflammation and are important considerations in aging, drug toxicity, and pathogenesis. The cell’s capacity to maintain its mitochondria involves intramitochondrial processes, such as heme and protein turnover, and those involving entire organelles, such as fusion, fission, selective mitochondrial macroautophagy (mitophagy), and mitochondrial biogenesis. The integration of these processes exemplifies mitochondrial quality control (QC), which is also important in cellular disorders ranging from primary mitochondrial genetic diseases to those that involve mitochondria secondarily, such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic syndromes. Consequently, mitochondrial biology represents a potentially useful, but relatively unexploited area of therapeutic innovation. In patients with genetic OXPHOS disorders, the largest group of inborn errors of metabolism, effective therapies, apart from symptomatic and nutritional measures, are largely lacking. Moreover, the genetic and biochemical heterogeneity of these states is remarkably similar to those of certain acquired diseases characterized by metabolic and oxidative stress and displaying wide variability. This biologic variability reflects cell-specific and repair processes that complicate rational pharmacological approaches to both primary and secondary mitochondrial disorders. However, emerging concepts of mitochondrial turnover and dynamics along with new mitochondrial disease models are providing opportunities to develop and evaluate mitochondrial QC-based therapies. The goals of such therapies extend beyond amelioration of energy insufficiency and tissue loss and entail cell repair, cell replacement, and the prevention of fibrosis. This review summarizes current concepts of mitochondria as disease elements and outlines novel strategies to address mitochondrial dysfunction through the stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control.
Targeting mitochondria for cancer therapy 2010
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential Identifies Cells with Enhanced Stemness for Cellular Therapy, 2015
Long-term survival and antitumor immunity of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells is dependent on their metabolic fitness, but approaches to isolate therapeutic T cells based on metabolic features are not well established.
- Researchers utilized a lipophilic cationic dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) to identify and isolate metabolically robust T cells based on their mitochondrial membrane potential (DJm). Comprehensive metabolomic and gene expression profiling demonstrated global features of improved metabolic fitness in low-DJm-sorted CD8+ T cells.