Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 17/10/2016



A short protein description with the molecular wheight, isoforms, etc...
Use, when available, the link to Wikipedia (Es Trypsin)

Calcification of joints and arteries
is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the NT5E gene on chromosome 6q14.

Pubmed nt5e mutations and arterial calcifications

NT5E mutations and arterial calcifications including Torino patients




When relevant for the function

  • Primary structure
  • Secondary structure
  • Tertiary structure

It requires Zinc

** PDB
* Quaternary structure

Protein Aminoacids Percentage
The Protein Aminoacids Percentage gives useful information on the local environment and the metabolic status of the cell (starvation, lack of essential AA, hypoxia)

Protein Aminoacids Percentage (Width 700 px)


mRNA synthesis
protein synthesis

post-translational modifications


cellular localization,
biological function

if we have less adenosine what can we expect by a poor stimulation of Adenosine receptors family?

More autoimmunity?

Pbmed NT5E and Treg

Pbmed CD73 and Treg

TH17 and Treg number and interactions are largely dependent on adenosine concentration and therefore can be shifted in the direction of hyperreactivity.

Dexamethasone modulates BMP-2 effects on mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. - PubMed - NCBI

Human osteoblast precursors produce extracellular adenosine, which modulates their secretion of IL-6 and osteoprotegerin. - PubMed - NCBI

altre cause di calcificazione


Biology of RANK, RANKL, and osteoprotegerin. 2007

  • The discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system and its role in the regulation of bone resorption exemplifies how both serendipity and a logic-based approach can identify factors that regulate cell function. Before this discovery in the mid to late 1990s, it had long been recognized that osteoclast formation was regulated by factors expressed by osteoblast/stromal cells, but it had not been anticipated that members of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of ligands and receptors would be involved or that the factors involved would have extensive functions beyond bone remodeling. RANKL/RANK signaling regulates the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts from their precursors as well as their activation and survival in normal bone remodeling and in a variety of pathologic conditions. OPG protects the skeleton from excessive bone resorption by binding to RANKL and preventing it from binding to its receptor, RANK. Thus, RANKL/OPG ratio is an important determinant of bone mass and skeletal integrity. Genetic studies in mice indicate that RANKL/RANK signaling is also required for lymph node formation and mammary gland lactational hyperplasia, and that OPG also protects arteries from medial calcification. Thus, these tumor necrosis factor superfamily members have important functions outside bone. Although our understanding of the mechanisms whereby they regulate osteoclast formation has advanced rapidly during the past 10 years, many questions remain about their roles in health and disease. Here we review our current understanding of the role of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system in bone and other tissues.


  • Enzymes
BRENDA - The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System"URL":
KEGG Pathways"URL":
Human Metabolome Database"URL":
  • Cell signaling and Ligand transport
  • Structural proteins


1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 acts via transforming growth factor-β to up-regulate expression of immunosuppressive CD73 on human CD4+ Foxp3- T cells. 2015


Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased incidence and severity of various immune-mediated diseases. Active vitamin D (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; 1,25(OH)2 D3) up-regulates CD4 T-cell expression of the purine ectonucleotidase CD39, a molecule that is associated with the generation of anti-inflammatory adenosine. Here we aimed to investigate the direct impact of 1,25(OH)2 D3 on expression of the downstream ecto-5-nucleotidase CD73 by human CD4 T cells, and components of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway, which have been implicated in the modulation of CD73 by murine T cells. At 10(-8) to 10(-7) m, 1,25(OH)2 D3 significantly increased expression of CD73 on peripheral human CD4 T cells. Although 1,25(OH)2 D3 did not affect the mRNA expression of latent TGF-β1 , 1,25(OH)2 D3 did up-regulate expression of TGF-β-associated molecules [latency-associated peptide (LAP), glycophorin A repetitions predominant (GARP), GP96, neuropilin-1, thrombospondin-1 and αv integrin] which is likely to have contributed to the observed enhancement in TGF-β bioactivity. CD73 was highly co-expressed with LAP and GARP following 1,25(OH)2 D3 treatment, but unexpectedly, each of these cell surface molecules was expressed primarily on CD4 Foxp3 T cells, rather than CD4 Foxp3 T cells. Notably, neutralization of TGF-β significantly impaired 1,25(OH)2 D3-mediated induction of CD73. Collectively, we show that 1,25(OH)2 D3 enhances expression of CD73 on CD4 Foxp3 T cells in a process that is at least partially TGF-β-dependent. These data reveal an additional contributing mechanism by which vitamin D may be protective in immune-mediated disease.


Adenosine receptor signaling: a key to opening the blood-brain door. 2015

Collectively, these findings point to AR manipulation as a pertinent avenue of research for novel strategies aiming at efficiently delivering therapeutic drugs/cells into the CNS, or at restricting the entry of inflammatory immune cells into the brain in some diseases such as multiple sclerosis. CD73

2016-10-24T13:40:06 - Gianpiero Pescarmona

cd73 and multiple sclerosis


Human osteoblast precursors produce extracellular adenosine, which modulates their secretion of IL-6 and osteoprotegerin. 2006


We showed that human osteoprogenitor cells produced adenosine and expressed ecto-5'-nucleotidase and all four adenosine receptor subtypes. Adenosine stimulated IL-6 but inhibited osteoprotegerin secretion, suggesting that adenosine is a newly described regulator of progenitor cell function.

Maintaining skeletal homeostasis relies on there being a balance between bone formation and resorption; an imbalance between these processes can lead to diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Recent reports showed that locally produced ATP, acting through P2 receptors, has pronounced effects on bone formation. However, ATP can be enzymatically cleaved to adenosine that has little or no activity at P2 receptors but mediates its action through the P1 family of receptors. We studied whether adenosine may also have an important role in controlling bone cell differentiation and function.

Extracellular adenosine levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography in HCC1 and bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) expression and activity was determined by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and the cleavage of etheno-AMP to ethenoadenosine. Adenosine receptor expression and activity were determined by RT-PCR and cAMP measurements. The effects of adenosine receptor agonists on IL-6, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and RANKL expression were determined by ELISA and QRT-PCR.

HCC1 and BMS cells produce adenosine and express CD73 and all four adenosine receptor subtypes. The A2b receptor was shown to be functionally dominant in HCC1 cells, as determined by cAMP production and in its stimulation of IL-6 secretion. Adenosine receptor agonism also inhibited OPG secretion and OPG but not RANKL mRNA expression.

Our findings show that HCC1 and primary BMS cells produce adenosine, express CD73 and all four adenosine receptor subtypes. In HCC1 cells, adenosine has a potent stimulatory action on IL-6 secretion but an inhibitory action on OPG expression. These data show for the first time that adenosine may be an important regulator of progenitor cell differentiation and hence an important local contributor to the regulation of bone formation and resorption.

Dexamethasone modulates BMP-2 effects on mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. 2008


Dexamethasone/ascorbic acid/glycerolphosphate (DAG) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 are potent agents in cell proliferation and differentiation pathways. This study investigates the in vitro interactions between dexamethasone and BMP-2 for an osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Bone marrow-derived human MSCs were cultured with DAG (group A), BMP-2 + DAG (group B), and DAG + BMP-2 combined with a porous collagen I/III scaffold (group C). RT-PCR, ELISA, immuncytochemical stainings and flow cytometry analysis served to evaluate the osteogenic-promoting potency of each of the above conditions in terms of cell morphology/viability, antigen presentation, and gene expression. DAG induced collagen I secretion from MSCs, which was further increased by the combination of DAG + BMP-2. In comparison, the collagen scaffold and the control samples showed no significant influence on collagen I secretion of MSCs. DAG stimulation of MSCs led also to a steady but not significant increase of BMP-2 level. A DAG and more, a DAG + BMP-2, stimulation increased the number of mesenchymal cells (CD105+/CD73+). All samples showed mRNA of ALP, osteopontin, Runx2, Twist 1 and 2, Notch-1/2, osteonectin, osteocalcin, BSP, and collagen-A1 after 28 days of in vitro culture. Culture media of all samples showed a decrease in Ca(2+) and PO (2-) concentration, whereas a collagen-I-peak only occurred at day 28 in DAG- and DAG + BMP-2-stimulated bone marrow cells. In conclusion, BMP-2 enhances DAG-induced osteogenic differentiation in mesenchymal bone marrow cells. Both agents interact in various ways and can modify osteoblastic bone formation.

Mesenchymal stem cells as active prohealing and immunosuppressive agents in periapical environment: evidence from human and experimental periapical lesions. 2014


Previous studies describe contrasting molecular profiles of active and inactive periapical granulomas characterized by distinct expression of cytokines, osteoclastogenic factors, and wound healing markers. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying such a dichotomy remain unknown, in this study we investigated the potential involvement of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in determining human and murine periapical lesion activity and outcomes.

Periapical granulomas (n = 83) and control samples (n = 24) were comparatively assessed for the expression levels of 11 mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Experimental periapical lesions induced in mice were evaluated for MSC marker expression and the effects of AMD3100 treatment on lesion outcomes.

MCS marker expression was prevalent in periapical granulomas compared with that in controls, whereas CD29, CD73, CD90, CD146, CD166, NANOG, Stro-1, and CXCR4 expressions were higher in inactive than in active lesions. Experimental periapical lesion inactivity was also associated with an increased expression of MSC markers. The inhibition of MSC mobilization to the periapex by AMD3100 (Plerixafor is a chemokine receptor antagonist for CXCR4 and CXCL12-mediated chemotaxis with IC50 of 44 nM and 5.7 nM, respectively.) resulted in increased lesion sizes; decreased expression of MSCs and wound healing markers; and increased expression of interleukin 1 beta (IL-17β), interleukin 17 (IL-17), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL).

Our results show that MSC markers are overexpressed in inactive human and experimental periapical lesions and that MSC mobilization results in the attenuation of experimental lesion progression associated with immunosuppressive and prohealing mechanisms.

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