Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Aluminium Health concerns
Environ Microbiol. 2010 Jun;12(6):1384-90. Epub 2010 Mar 25.
Pseudomonas fluorescens orchestrates a fine metabolic-balancing act to counter aluminium toxicity. 2010
Lemire J, Mailloux R, Auger C, Whalen D, Appanna VD.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, ON, Canada, P3E 2C6.
Aluminium (Al), an environmental toxin, is known to disrupt cellular functions by perturbing iron (Fe) homeostasis. However, Fe is essential for such metabolic processes as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, the two pivotal networks that mediate ATP production during aerobiosis. To counter the Fe conundrum induced by Al toxicity, Pseudomonas fluorescens utilizes isocitrate lyase and isocitrate dehydrogenase-NADP dependent to metabolize citrate when confronted with an ineffective aconitase provoked by Al stress. By invoking fumarase C, a hydratase devoid of Fe, this microbe is able to generate essential metabolites. To compensate for the severely diminished enzymes like Complex I, Complex II and Complex IV, the upregulation of a H(2)O-generating NADH oxidase enables the metabolism of citrate, the sole carbon source via a modified TCA cycle. The overexpression of succinyl-CoA synthetase affords an effective route to ATP production by substrate-level phosphorylation in the absence of O(2). This fine metabolic balance enables P. fluorescens to survive the dearth of bioavailable Fe triggered by an Al environment, a feature that may have potential applications in bioremediation technologies.
An extensive number of cosmetic products are applied topically on and around the human breast for a long-term and regularry. These products are not rinsed off but left on the skin, allowing for continuous dermal exposure, absorption and deposition into underlying tissues.
Aluminium salts , such as * aluminium chlorhydrate * , are the active ingredients of the most diffused antiperspirant. these compounds are normally found in high concentrations in body care products, in effect:aluminium chlorhydrate is allowed up to 25%;aluminum chloride up to 15%;aluminum-zirconium hydrochloride up to 20%.
Although it’s known that aluminium have a genotoxic profile.
In fact aluminum hydroxide injections lead to motor and cognitive deficit and motor neuron degeneration . It’s demonstrated that the systemic accumulation of aluminium increase the risk of aluminium-related disease such as Alzheimer or contact dermatitis and digestive disorders .
Furthermore aluminium–zirconium complexes have been linked to the development of granulomas at the site of antiperspirant application and the use of aluminium-based vaccines is also known to cause itching nodules locally at the site of vaccination.
ACH is the active ingredient of antiperspirant.
Its mode of action consist in the blockage of underarm sweat ducts throught the formation of a physical plug , which is composed of a combination of precipitated salts and damaged cells at the top of the sweat duct.
Use of these salts in cosmetics relies on the inability of the antiperspirant complexes to be absorbed. In reality they are involved in breast cancer and the strongest supporting evidence comes from published clinical observations dating back decades and showing a disproportionately large number of breast cancers (30%)in the upper outer quadrant (UOQ) of the breast, just the local area to which these chemicals are applied (Underarm antiperspirants/deodorants and breast cancer. 2003)
US antiperspirant-deodorant sales vs. selected cancer incidences
1) ACH is a metallo-oestrogen: it can interfere with the function of oestrogen receptors of MCF7 human breast cancer cells, that is a zinc finger transcription factor, both in terms of ligand binding and in terms of oestrogen-regulated reporter gene expression. In fact it has the potential to knock out and occupy key zinc binding sites of the receptor essential for the normal function of zinc finger transcription factors.
Oestrogen is a well established influence in breast cancer. Microarray expression analysis has shown that there are hundreds of genes regulated by oestrogen in breast cancer cells and genes can be both upregulated and downregulated.
The ability of a cocktail of environmental oestrogen-mimicking chemicals to also drive the development and growth of breast cancers is worthy of serious consideration.
2) At a molecular level, any effects of aluminium would be most likely to involve DNA damage followed by aberrant signalling of growth pathway. ACH has been shown capable of binding to DNA and has been suggested to contribute to oxidative stress through its interference with the action of transcription factors, especially HIF-1 and NF-κB.
Development of breast cancer is associated with loss of function of tumour suppressor genes including the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which results in impaired DNA repair processes.
If there is this lost of function and moreover there’s an exposition to chemicals which induce DNA damage the probability to develop breast cancer is higer than the remainder of the population who have intact DNA repair systems.
breast cancer cell
3) At systemic level some studies have investigated whether environmental oestrogens entering the human breast through diet (for example, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls in animal fat, phytoestrogens or herbicides through fruit and vegetables) or through the domestic environment (for example, bisphenol A/phthalates in plastics, alkyl phenols in detergents, polybrominated diphenylethers in soft furnishings) may be linked to the development of breast cancer. If it’s added topical application of cosmetic chemicals with oestrogenic properties this provides another exposure route. A recent study reports uptake of aluminium from an underarm antiperspirant to a toxic level of 4 μM in blood plasma which returned to the normal range (0.1–0.3 μM) when antiperspirant use was stopped. (Aluminium, antiperspirants and breast cancer. 2005)
If use of underarm cosmetics is a risk factor in the development of breast cancer, then options for prevention could at last become a reality through individual decisions to cease usage or through alterations to product formulations. There are lot of natural deodorants which allows the perspiration without chemicals with carcinogenic strength.
DEODORANTS ALUMINIUM FREE
Neutro Roberts "Extra Fresco"
Dr. Hauschka Deo-latte delicato
Dr. Hauschka Deo-latte fresco
Weleda Deodorante al limone
Weleda Deodorante alla salvia