The specific protein loss rate depends on protein size 2007
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2007 Jul;16(4):359-64.
Albumin transport and processing by the proximal tubule: physiology and pathophysiology.
Pollock CA, Poronnik P.
Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Kolling Institute, Royal North Shore Hospital, New South Wales, Australia. email@example.com
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Significant epidemiological and clinical trial evidence supports the association between increased urinary albumin excretion, cardiovascular events and renal failure. An increase in albumin excretion has traditionally been considered to reflect a 'glomerular' leak of protein; however, it is now recognized that significant tubular reabsorption of albumin occurs under physiological conditions that may be modified by genetic determinants, systemic disease and drug therapies.
RECENT FINDINGS: The endocytosis of albumin by the proximal tubule is a highly regulated process depending on protein-protein interactions between several membrane proteins and scaffolding and regulatory molecules. The elucidation of these interactions is an ongoing research focus. There is also mounting evidence for a transcytotic pathway for retrieval of albumin from the tubular filtrate. The molecular basis for the role of albuminuria in both interstitial renal disease and cardiovascular pathology continues to be defined. The clinical implications of albuminuria due to a glomerular leak vs. reduced tubular reabsorption of albumin are, however, now under consideration. In particular, the prognostic implication of microalbuminuria induced by the more potent 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors is under study.
SUMMARY: The currently defined mechanisms underpinning the tubular reabsorption of albumin, how these are modified by pathology and pharmacology, and the clinical implications are the subject of this review.
Am J Cardiol. 2006 Apr 17;97(8A):44C-51C. Epub 2006 Feb 2.
Statin safety: lessons from new drug applications for marketed statins. 2006
Safety has become a central issue in the management of dyslipidemia with statins. A review of New Drug Applications (NDAs) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Web site was conducted for all 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, or statins, with a major focus on cerivastatin and rosuvastatin. The findings provide insight into the incidence of adverse events for this class of drugs and support the significant benefits of statins relative to associated risks. These data delineate the nature of statin associated liver, muscle, and renal adverse events. Although transaminase levels increase in a dose-related fashion with statins, a definitive correlation between statin therapy and hepatotoxicity is not supported by statin NDA data. Statin-induced myopathy is a relatively rare event (1 in 1,000) and rhabdomyolysis is even rarer (1 in 10,000). The cerivastatin NDA, along with its supplementary NDA, was the first to demonstrate a clear statin dose-response relation with myopathy and a threshold effect above which myotoxicity increases significantly. Proteinuria was identified as a consequence of statin therapy with data from the rosuvastatin NDA, and subsequent analysis suggests a class effect that is dose related but transient. Studies in cell culture suggest the mechanism is a pharmacologic effect on the proximal renal tubule. The available evidence suggests no clear renal toxicity with currently approved statins, because no declines in renal function or glomerular filtration rate have been documented over time. Overall, currently marketed statins have a very favorable benefit-to-risk relation with respect to liver, muscle, and renal issues.
Statin safety: an assessment using an administrative claims database. 2006
Papers PUFA n-3 albuminuria