HPV
Viruses

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 21/11/2007

Description

DEFINITION

The Human papillomavirus /HPV is a virus that can infect the skin or mucous membranes (like the genitals, or inside the mouth) of humans. They cause warts. Some of them may cause cancer. There are over 100 different virus types in this group. About 40 virus types can be transmitted sexually. About 12-15 can cause cancer.

Related diseases

  • Cervical cancer
  • Factor in other cancers (Anal, Vaginal, Vulvar, Penile, Head and neck cancer (HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer))
  • Warts (genital, plantar, flat, Laryngeal papillomatosis), Epidermodysplasia verruciformis, Focal epithelial hyperplasia, Papilloma

EPIDEMIOLOGY

age, sex, seasonality, etc

SYMPTOMS

DIAGNOSIS

histopathology
radiology
NMR
laboratory tests

PATHOGENESIS

HPV invasion

HPV Invasion + caption

Fulltext

Cadherins

Unique Strains of SV40 in Commercial Poliovaccines from 1955 Not Readily Identifiable with Current Testing for SV40 Infection

PATIENT RISK FACTORS

Vascular

Genetic

Acquired

Hormonal

Genetic

Acquired

TISSUE SPECIFIC RISK FACTORS

anatomical (due its structure)

vascular (due to the local circulation)

physiopathological (due to tissue function and activity)

COMPLICATIONS

THERAPY

Treatment of recalcitrant periungual warts with cimetidine in pediatrics.2010 Chern E, Cheng YW.J Dermatolog Treat. 2010 Sep;21(5):314-6.

  • Viral warts, caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), are commonly seen in dermatology clinics. However, treatment for warts can be challenging, and there is no single method of treatment that is universally effective. Conventional therapies involve the physical destruction of lesions, including cryotherapy, electrodesiccation, CO2 laser, and topical keratolytic agents. Successful treatment of recalcitrant warts, especially periungual lesions and verruca plana of the face, had been limited with the conventional modalities. These painful procedures resulting in poor compliance, cosmetic disfiguration, and residual indolent lesions usually led to incomplete treatment. Use of high-dose cimetidine in the treatment of viral warts has been reported in the literature in recent years; however, with conflicting results. Herein, we present a 12-year-old girl with recalcitrant periungual warts, successfully treated with cimetidine for 4 months without subsequent recurrence and side effects.

Infection With Human Papillomavirus Alters Expression of the Small Proline Rich Proteins 2 and 3, 2004

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) does not induce lysis of infected keratinocytes, and the exact
    mechanisms of viral escape are not known. As keratinocytes differentiate, the cornified cell
    envelope (CCE) develops, providing a protective barrier to the host. Our prior studies have
    identified abnormalities in CCEs isolated from genital epithelium infected with HPV 11 (a lowrisk HPV type) and HPV 59 (a high-risk HPV type).
    These abnormalities included reduced thickness and increased fragility compared to CCEs
    in healthy epithelium. Transcription of loricrin is also reduced in HPV 11- and 59-infected epithelium. In this study, uninfected and HPV 11- or 59-infected human genital epithelium were examined for expression of the small proline rich proteins (SPRs), which serve as cross-linking proteins within the CCE. Limiting cycle RT-PCR was performed to detect the various SPR transcripts in HPV 11- and 59-infected, or uninfected epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis and immunoblot assays were performed to analyze the distribution and quantity of SPR2A, SPR2B, and SPR3. SPR2B transcripts were moderately increased in the HPV 11- and 59-infected tissues and SPR3 transcripts were significantly increased in HPV 11-infected tissues and minimally increased in HPV 59-infected tissues. SPR2B protein quantities were moderately increased while SPR2A was not significantly changed.
    SPR3 protein, while not present in uninfected epithelium, was detected in abundance in HPV
    11-infected tissue. We conclude that low-risk and high-risk HPVs share the ability to alter expression of CCE proteins, although the exact mechanisms may differ. Expression of individual SPRs differed between these types and these alterations may play a role in fragility of CCEs in HPV infection

Human papillomavirus persistence and nutrients involved in the methylation pathway among a cohort of young women. 2002

  • Abstract
    Persistent oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with cervical dysplasia. Cofactors, such as nutrient status, may be required for the progression of HPV infection to neoplasia. HPV DNA methylation patterns in vitro have been shown to be associated with viral transcriptional activity. Folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and methionine may function to prevent cervical cancer through their role in DNA methylation. This study was conducted to examine the relationship of dietary intake of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, and methionine, as well as circulating levels of folate and vitamin B12 to HPV persistence. Oncogenic HPV status was determined at baseline and at approximately 3 and 9 months postbaseline. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the adjusted odds ratios for persistent HPV infection associated with each tertile of individual nutrient among 201 women with a persistent or intermittent HPV infection. Circulating vitamin B12 levels were inversely associated with HPV persistence (P for trend, 0.037) after adjusting for age, age at first intercourse, marital status, cigarette smoking status, race, and body mass index. In addition, women with circulating levels in the highest tertile (>493.2 pg/ml) of vitamin B12 were less likely to have a persistent infection (adjusted odds ratio = 0.4; 95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.96). No significant associations were observed between HPV persistence and dietary intake of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, or methionine from food alone or from food and supplements combined or from circulating folate. These data suggest a role for circulating vitamin B12 in early cervical carcinogenesis.

The role of diet and nutrition in cervical carcinogenesis: a review of recent evidence. 2005

  • Our objective was to provide an update on recent epidemiologic evidence about the role of diet and nutrition on the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and cervical neoplasia, taking HPV into account.

Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism C677T and dietary folate with the risk of cervical dysplasia. 2001

  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes the synthesis of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which is involved in the methylation of homocysteine to methionine.

Infezioni virali in ginecologia: un problema risolto? 2016

  • The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a dietary integrator containing methionine, zinc, Echinacea angustifolia and E.

A relationship between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variants and the development of invasive cervical cancer. 2003

  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme regulating the metabolism of folate and methionine, the important components of DNA synthesis and methylation.
Comments
2018-11-09T11:10:55 - Gianpiero Pescarmona

Second malignancies in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: possible association with human papilloma virus. 2010

  • Second primary malignancies have long been associated with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). We assessed secondary tumour samples from CLL and control patients for the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV). 132 CLL patients with 44 second malignancies were compared to a matched randomly-identified control population of 264 non-CLL patients with 54 solid malignancies. Polymerase chain reaction was performed with the highly conserved MY09/MY11 HPV primer. None of control samples were HPV-positive, while 53% of samples from the CLL group were positive. This report describes preliminary evidence for the presence of HPV in secondary malignancies, in patients with CLL.

Leukemia HPV

2008-01-31T05:20:19 - daniele viarisio

Skin hyperproliferation and susceptibility to chemical carcinogenesis in transgenic mice expressing E6 and E7 of human papillomavirus type 38.

Impairment of the telomere/telomerase system and genomic instability are associated with keratinocyte immortalization induced by the skin human papillomavirus type 38.

Skin human papillomavirus type 38 alters p53 functions by accumulation of deltaNp73.

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