Hypothyroidism is treated with the levorotatory forms of thyroxine (L-T4) and triiodothyronine (L-T3). Both synthetic and animal-derived thyroid tablets are available and can be prescribed for patients in need of additional thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone is taken daily, and doctors can monitor blood levels to help assure proper dosing. There are several different treatment protocols in thyroid replacement therapy:
This treatment involves supplementation of levothyroxine alone, in a synthetic form. It is currently the standard treatment in mainstream medicine.
T4 and T3 in combination
This treatment protocol involves administering both synthetic L-T4 and L-T3 simultaneously in combination.
Desiccated thyroid extract
Desiccated thyroid extract is an animal based thyroid extract, most commonly from a porcine source. It is also a combination therapy, containing natural forms of L-T4 and L-T3.
Both T3 and T4 are used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism). They are both absorbed well by the gut, so can be given orally. Levothyroxine, the most commonly used synthetic thyroxine form, is a stereoisomer of physiological thyroxine, which is metabolised more slowly and hence usually only needs once-daily administration.
Brand names: Levothroid® Levoxyl® Synthroid® Unithroid®(levothyroxine sodium) Tablets, USP
In Italy is used Eutirox
Excess TH may induce RXR scavenging by TH bound TR with impaired binding of VDR and RAR
Levothyroxine dose and risk of fractures in older adults: nested case-control study 2011 OPEN ACCESS
BMJ 2011; 342:d2238 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d2238 (Published 28 April 2011)
Objective To quantify the effect of levothyroxine dose on risk of fractures in older adults.
Design Nested case-control study.
Setting Population based health databases, Ontario, Canada.
Participants Adults aged 70 or more prescribed levothyroxine between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2007 and followed for fractures until 31 March 2008. Cases were cohort members admitted to hospital for any fracture, matched with up to five controls from within the cohort who had not yet had a fracture.
Main outcome measure Primary outcome was fracture (wrist or forearm, shoulder or upper arm, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and pelvis, hip or femur, or lower leg or ankle) in relation to levothyroxine use (current, recent past, remote). Risk among current users was compared between those prescribed high, medium, and low cumulative levothyroxine doses in the year before fracture.
Results Of 213 511 prevalent levothyroxine users identified, 22 236 (10.4%) experienced a fracture over a mean 3.8 years of follow-up, 18 108 (88%) of whom were women. Compared with remote levothyroxine use, current use was associated with a significantly higher risk of fracture (adjusted odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.71 to 2.05), despite adjustment for numerous risk factors. Among current users, high and medium cumulative doses (>0.093 mg/day and 0.044-0.093 mg/day) were associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture compared with low cumulative doses (<0.044 mg/day): 3.45 (3.27 to 3.65) and 2.62 (2.50 to 2.76), respectively.
Conclusion Among adults aged 70 or more, current levothyroxine treatment was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture, with a strong dose-response relation. Ongoing monitoring of levothyroxine dose is important to avoid overtreatment in this population.
DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAW
by Piredda Laura 02/07/2009