Differential effects of ibandronate, docetaxel and farnesol treatment alone and in combination on the growth of prostate cancer cell lines. 2011
Polyisoprenoid epoxides stimulate the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q and inhibit cholesterol synthesis. 2008
In our search for compounds that up-regulate the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q (CoQ), we discovered that irradiation of CoQ with ultraviolet light results in the formation of a number of compounds that influence the synthesis of mevalonate pathway lipids by HepG2 cells. Among the compounds that potently stimulated CoQ synthesis while inhibiting cholesterol synthesis, derivatives of CoQ containing 1-4 epoxide moieties in their polyisoprenoid side chains were identified. Subsequently, chemical epoxidation of all-trans-polyprenols of different lengths revealed that the shorter farnesol and geranylgeraniol derivatives were without effect, whereas the longer derivatives of solanesol enhanced CoQ and markedly reduced cholesterol biosynthesis. In contrast, none of the modified trans-trans-poly-cis-polyprenols exerted noticeable effects. Tocotrienol epoxides were especially potent in our system; those with one epoxide moiety in the side-chain generally up-regulated CoQ biosynthesis by 200-300%, whereas those with two such moieties also decreased cholesterol synthesis by 50-90%. Prolonged treatment of HepG2 cells with tocotrienol epoxides for 26 days elevated their content of CoQ by 30%. In addition, the levels of mRNA encoding enzymes involved in CoQ biosynthesis were also elevated by the tocotrienol epoxides. The site of inhibition of cholesterol synthesis was shown to be oxidosqualene cyclase. In conclusion, epoxide derivatives of certain all-trans-polyisoprenoids cause pronounced stimulation of CoQ synthesis and, in some cases, simultaneous reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis by HepG2 cells.
Mevalonate metabolism governs cancer immune surveillance 2017
Geranylgeraniol prevents the cytotoxic effects of mevastatin in THP-1 cells, without decreasing the beneficial effects on cholesterol synthesis 2009