ACE (Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme )
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 21/09/2012



Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme


Your Favorite Gene Sigma"ACE":"ACE2":


When relevant for the function

  • Primary structure
  • Secondary structure
  • Tertiary structure
  • Quaternary structure

Protein Aminoacids Percentage (Width 700 px)


mRNA synthesis

Aldosterone induces angiotensin converting enzyme gene expression via a JAK2-dependent pathway in rat endothelial cells. 2005

  • Aldosterone is currently recognized as a risk hormone for cardiovascular disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which aldosterone acts on vasculature has not been well understood. In the present study, we investigated whether aldosterone affects angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene expression in rat endothelial cells. Cultured rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) from Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study. ACE mRNA levels and its enzyme activities in RAECs were examined by real-time RT-PCR and enzyme assay using hippuryl-His-Leu as substrates, respectively. Aldosterone significantly increased steady-state ACE mRNA levels and its enzymatic activities. This effect was dose dependent and time dependent and abolished by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone or transcription inhibitor actinomycin D. Dexamethasone also increased steady-state ACE mRNA levels, whose effect was completely blocked by glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486, but not by spironolactone. By contrast, the aldosterone-induced ACE mRNA expression was only partially blocked by RU486. The stimulatory effect of aldosterone on ACE mRNA expression was completely blocked by a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor (genistein) and JAK2 inhibitor (AG490), partially by Src kinase inhibitor (PP2) and epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor (AG1478), but not by platelet-derived growth factor receptor kinase inhibitor (AG1296). Transfection of dominant-negative JAK2 construct, but not wild-type construct, significantly blocked the aldosterone-induced ACE mRNA up-regulation. Furthermore, aldosterone induced phosphorylation of JAK2, whose effect was blocked by spironolactone and actinomycin D. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates for the first time that aldosterone induces ACE gene expression and its enzyme activity mainly via a mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated and JAK2-dependent pathway in rat endothelial cells. This may constitute a positive feedback loop for a local renin-angiotensin system, possibly involved in the development of aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular injury.

The effect of prostaglandin D2 on angiotensin converting enzyme☆ 1988

protein synthesis

post-translational modifications


cellular localization,
h4. Testicular
Human Sperm Devoid of Germinal Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Is Responsible for Total Fertilization Failure and Lower Fertilization Rates by Conventional In Vitro Fertilization, 2014

In this study, we found that germinal angiotensin-converting enzyme (gACE) (also called testicular ACE) was undetectable in sperm from patients who had total fertilization failure (TFF) and lower fertilization rates (LFRs) by IVF based on Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence analyses. Additionally, almost all of the patients without gACE on sperm (23 of 25) manifested a TT genotype of the rs4316 single-nucleotide polymorphism of ACE.
gACE isoform 3 out of 4 isoforms depending on alternative splicing

biological function

  • Enzymes
BRENDA - The Comprehensive Enzyme Information System"URL":
KEGG Pathways"URL":
Human Metabolome Database"URL":
  • Cell signaling and Ligand transport
  • Structural proteins


AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates Endothelial Cell Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Expression via p53 and the Post-Transcriptional Regulation of microRNA-143/145, 2013
High–angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the regulation of its expression.

To assess the molecular mechanisms regulating endothelial ACE expression focusing on the role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and miR-143/145.

Methods and Results:
Shear stress decreased ACE expression in cultured endothelial cells, an effect prevented by downregulating AMPKα2 but not AMPKα1. AMPKα2−/− mice expressed higher ACE levels than wild-type littermates resulting in impaired hindlimb vasodilatation to the ACE substrate, bradykinin. The latter response was also evident in animals lacking the AMPKα2 subunit only in endothelial cells. In cultured endothelial cells, miR-143/145 levels were increased by shear stress in an AMPKα2-dependent manner, and miR-143/145 overexpression decreased ACE expression. The effect of shear stress was unrelated to an increase in miR-143/145 promoter activity and transcription but could be attributed to post-transcriptional regulation of precursor–miR-143/145 by AMPKα2. The AMPK substrate, p53, can enhance the post-transcriptional processing of several microRNAs, including miR-143/145. We found that shear stress elicited the AMPKα2-dependent phosphorylation of p53 (on Ser15), and that p53 downregulation prevented the shear stress–induced decrease in ACE expression. Streptozotocin–induced diabetes mellitus in mice was studied as a pathophysiological model of altered AMPK activity. Diabetes mellitus increased tissue phosphorylation of the AMPK substrates, p53 and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, changes that correlated with increased miR-143/145 levels and decreased ACE expression.

AMPKα2 suppresses endothelial ACE expression via the phosphorylation of p53 and upregulation of miR-143/145. Post-transcriptional regulation of miR-143/145 may contribute to the vascular complications associated with diabetes mellitus.


ACE-inhibitors pathways

Side effects


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