Metabolic Markers

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 22/06/2009



Adiponectin is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is a protein hormone which is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. In humans it is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene and it is produced in adipose tissue.

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When relevant for the function

  • Primary structure
  • Secondary structure
  • Tertiary structure
  • Quaternary structure

Low Trp and very high glycine


mRNA synthesis
protein synthesis
post-translational modifications


cellular localization,
biological function

  • Enzymes
  • Cell signaling and Ligand transport
  • Structural proteins



Bere alcool aumenta la concentrazione di adiponectina, ma si tratta di un effetto influenzato da sesso e tipo di bevanda consumata. Studi precedenti avevano dimostrato un effetto robusto sulle concentrazioni di adiponectina anche con dosi moderate di alcool in ambo i sessi, effetto che probabilmente media i benefici dell'alcool in queste quantità nei confronti delle malattie cardiovascolari; l'adiponectina potrebbe essere anche un importante mediatore fra il consumo di alcool e la diminuzione dell'incidenza del diabete di tipo 2, ma questo ed altri potenziali effetti benefici non erano ancora stati esaminati in relazione al sesso ed al tipo di bevanda consumata. Il presente studio è comunque di dimensioni limitate, ed è necessario confermarne i risultati prima di poterne esaminare le sostanziali implicazioni cliniche. (Diabetes Care 2009; 32: 1101-3)

[Protective effects of adiponectin against hypoxia/reoxygenation injury in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes].2010

  • The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of adiponectin (APN) on hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury in cultured cardiomyocytes. Primary cardiomyocytes were obtained from neonatal rats by enzymatic digestion method and identified by immunofluorescent technique. Primary cells cultured for 72 h were used in experiment and divided into 5 groups randomly: Control group, H/R group, H/R+APN group, H/R+APN+adenine 9-beta-D-arabinfuranoside (AraA, AMPK inhibitor) group, and H/R+AraA group. The cardiocyte morphology and beating rate were observed under inverted microscope. The DNA ladder was examined by agarose gel electrophoresis, and the cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. Moreover, the malondialchehyche (MDA) content in myocardial cells and the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the supernatant were measured using kits, the fluorescence intensity of intracellular Ca2+ was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope, and the phosphorylation of AMPK was determined by Western blotting. Compared with control group, H/R group showed increased apoptotic rate, oxidative stress level, intracellular Ca2+ concentration and phosphorylation level of AMPK (P<0.05), while significant ameliorations in the above indices were seen in H/R+APN group. On the contrast, AraA attenuated the protective effect of APN and decreased the phosphorylation of AMPK. These results suggest that adiponectin can protect cardiomyocytes from H/R-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis through AMPK pathway.

Adiponectin and heart

adiponectin heart

Adiponectin stimulates Rho-mediated actin cytoskeleton remodeling and glucose uptake via APPL1 in primary cardiomyocytes. 2014

OBJECTIVE Adiponectin is known to confer its cardioprotective effects in obesity and type 2 diabetes, mainly by regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

Serum adiponectin is reduced in acromegaly and normalized after correction of growth hormone excess. 2004

  • In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, adiponectin mRNA levels were decreased by insulin (1.5 microm; P < 0.005) or IGF-I (1 microg/ml; P < 0.05), but not by GH (1 microm) or somatostatin (1 microm).

2010-02-23T22:54:26 - Marco Sacco

Hypoxia led to a reduction in adiponectin and haptoglobin mRNA levels; adiponectin secretion also decreased. In contrast, resulted in substantial increases in FIAF/angiopoietin-like protein 4, IL-6, leptin, MIF, PAI-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels; these were reversed on return to normoxia. Hypoxia induces extensive changes in human adipocytes in the expression and release of inflammation-related adipokines.
Hypoxia may underlie the development of the inflammatory response in adipocytes, leading to obesity-associated diseases. (Pflugers Arch - Eur J Physiol (2007) 455:479–492)

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