A Desaturase is an enzyme that removes two hydrogen atoms from an organic compound, creating a carbon/carbon double bond.
It requires NADPH and heme (iron, estrogens, Vit.B6)
Four desaturases occur in humans: Δ9 desaturase (SCD, FADS3), Δ6 desaturase (FADS2, FADS6), Δ5 desaturase (FADS1). HGNC FADS
Δ9 desaturase, also known as stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, is used to synthesize oleic acid, a monounsaturated, ubiquitous component of all cells in the human body. Δ9 desaturase produces oleic acid by desaturating stearic acid or palmitoleic acid from palmitic acid. It exists in 2 isoforms: ACOD_HUMAN and SCD5_HUMAN
Protein Aminoacids Percentage
CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND IMAGES
When relevant for the function
- Primary structure
- Secondary structure
- Tertiary structure
- Quaternary structure
Protein Aminoacids Percentage (Width 700 px)
SYNTHESIS AND TURNOVER
- Insulin also up-regulates these three genes in the Sertoli cell, while SCD1 mRNA is down-regulated by both insulin and dexamethasone.
- FSH. FSH seems to be a key regulator of the desaturase expression in the Sertoli cell.
Delta5- and Delta6-desaturase, SCD1, and SCD2 are all up-regulated by FSH. A similar up-regulation of the desaturases is observed when treating Sertoli cells with (Bu)2cAMP, indicating that the desaturase up-regulation observed with FSH treatment results from
- testosterone has no influence on the desaturase gene expression.
- DEsametasone. As opposed to what is shown in liver, Delta5- and Delta6-desaturase mRNA levels in Sertoli cells are up-regulated by dexamethasone.
Expression and regulation of delta5-desaturase, delta6-desaturase, stearoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) desaturase 1, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 2 in rat testis. 2003
Papers delta 6 desaturase estrogen
Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Jun 1;15(11):1745-56. Epub 2006 May 2.
Common genetic variants of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster and their reconstructed haplotypes are associated with the fatty acid composition in phospholipids. 2006
Schaeffer L, Gohlke H, Müller M, Heid IM, Palmer LJ, Kompauer I, Demmelmair H, Illig T, Koletzko B, Heinrich J.
GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Epidemiology, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany.
Fatty acid composition in membranes plays an important role in cellular processes and has shown to be associated with the aetiology of several complex diseases in humans. We report strong associations between variants in the human delta-5 and delta-6 desaturase genes FADS1 FADS2 and fatty acid composition in serum phospholipids. Eighteen polymorphisms located in this gene cluster were genotyped in 727 adults from Erfurt, a German centre of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. The cluster is located at chromosome 11q12-11q13.1, a region repeatedly found to be linked with atopy and other complex diseases. Polymorphisms and statistically reconstructed haplotypes of FADS1 and the upstream region of FADS2 showed strongest associations with the level of the direct precursor of inflammatory eicosanoids, the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (C20:4n-6), also strong associations with levels of the n-6 fatty acids C18:2n-6, C18:3n-6, C20:2n-6, C20:3n-6, C22:4n-6 and of the n-3 fatty acids C18:3n-3, C20:5n-3 and C22:5n-3 (P-values < 1.0 × 10(-13)). Carriers of the rare alleles of several SNPs and their respective haplotypes had a lower prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema. No association was found for total and specific IgE(IgE) levels.
- Cell signaling and Ligand transport
- Structural proteins