Vitamin D Supplementation
Vitamin D

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 04/02/2013

Description

Units Conversion
Blood level of 25 (OH) Vitamin D
nanograms/milliliter (ng/ml) and nanomoles/Liter (nmol/L)
1 ng/ml = 2.5 nmol.L
30 ng/ml = 75 nmol/L

Dose: International Units and micrograms
40 I.U. = 1 mcg
400 I.U. = 10 mcg
1000 I.U. = 25 mcg
50,000 I.U = 1250 mcg or 1.25 mg (milligram)

Units Conversion
Blood level of 25 (OH) Vitamin D
nanograms/milliliter (ng/ml) and nanomoles/Liter (nmol/L)
1 ng/ml = 2.5 nmol.L
30 ng/ml = 75 nmol/L

Dose: International Units and micrograms
40 I.U. = 1 mcg
400 I.U. = 10 mcg
1000 I.U. = 25 mcg
50,000 I.U = 1250 mcg or 1.25 mg (milligram)

Vit D
VITAMIN D: NOT ONLY A VITAMIN BUT ALSO A HORMONE

The calicalciferol is a steroid which comes from the idrocolesterol after the sunlight exposure. It is the precursor of the biological active form of the vitamin D, known as calcitriol. This steroid goes to the liver and then to the kidney, where it is turned into in 1.25 didrossicolecalciferol which is functionally active. The active form of the vitamin can act on different tissues regulating the calcium phosphorus metabolism increasing the renal reabsorption and the intestinal absorption of these elements. As other different hormones, the ability of this vitamin steroid nature to regulate the gene expression has urged a lot of researchers to develop the biological and pharmacodynamic characteristics of these elements. These investigations have revealed new therapeutical properties comparable with some growing factors.
Herewith I’m reporting some pathologies where the vitamin administration has shown some beneficial effects.

They are:

ARTHRITIS
Recent studies have revealed that women who ingest more than 400 IU of vitamin D day reduce their risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis by as much as 42%. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of developing oreoarthritis.

DIABETES
Diabetes mellitus type I

Studies in mice have suggested that preatreating mice that are prone to developing type I diabetes with the active form of vitamin D reduces the development of type I diabetes by 80%. This study is supported by the observation in Finland where children in the 1960’s routinely received 2,00 IU of vitamin D a day during their first year of life. When these children were followed for the next 31 years, it was observed that these children had a reduced risk of developing type I diabetes by 78%. Children who were vitamin D deficient at the same time and also followed for 31 years had an almost 300% increased risk of developing type I diabetes.

Diabetes mellitus type II
The beta islet cells that produce insulin in the pancreas have a vitamin D receptor. The active form of vitamin D stimulates the pancreas to produce insulin. It has been observed that the relative risk of developing type II diabetes is reduced by as much as 33% in men and women who increase their intake of vitamin D above 800 IU/day along with 1,000 milligrams of calcium.

OSTEOPOROSIS
Vitamin D deficiency will cause removal of both the calcium and matrix from the bone, and as a result, will cause osteopenia and can precipitate and exacerbate osteoporosis. Unlike osteomalacia which causes bone pain, osteoporosis, which is porotic bone holes in the bones and loss of bone doesn’t cause bone pain unless there is an acute fracture. Typically this pain resolves as the fracture heals and can be easily distinguished from osteomalacia.

Other cases where the vitamins administration seems to get good results are: the epilepsy, schizophrenia, depression, cancer and obesity.

vitamindhealth.

1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces cerebral amyloid-β accumulation and improves cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease. 2014

  • Abstract

We demonstrate a role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in reducing cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Short-term treatment of two human amyloid precursor protein-expressing models, Tg2576 and TgCRND8 mice, with 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the endogenous active ligand of VDR, resulted in higher brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lower soluble Aβ levels, effects negated with coadministration of elacridar, a P-gp inhibitor. Long-term treatment of TgCRND8 mice with 1,25(OH)2D3 during the period of plaque formation reduced soluble and insoluble plaque-associated Aβ, particularly in the hippocampus in which the VDR is abundant and P-gp induction is greatest after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, and this led to improved conditioned fear memory. In mice fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, lower cerebral P-gp expression was observed, but levels were restored on replenishment with VDR ligands. The composite data suggest that the VDR is an important therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

vitamin d p-glycoprotein

vitamin d p-glycoprotein

Coenzyme Q10 decreases amyloid pathology and improves behavior in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. 2011

  • Increased oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A large body of evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and increased reactive oxygen species occur prior to amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a component of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, is well characterized as a neuroprotective antioxidant in animal models and human trials of Huntington's disease and Parkinson's disease, and reduces plaque burden in AβPP/PS1 mice. We now show that CoQ10 reduces oxidative stress and amyloid pathology and improves behavioral performance in the Tg19959 mouse model of AD. CoQ10 treatment decreased brain levels of protein carbonyls, a marker of oxidative stress. CoQ10 treatment resulted in decreased plaque area and number in hippocampus and in overlying cortex immunostained with an Aβ42-specific antibody. Brain Aβ42 levels were also decreased by CoQ10 supplementation. Levels of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) β-carboxyterminal fragments were decreased. Importantly, CoQ10-treated mice showed improved cognitive performance during Morris water maze testing. Our results show decreased pathology and improved behavior in transgenic AD mice treated with the naturally occurring antioxidant compound CoQ10. CoQ10 is well tolerated in humans and may be promising for therapeutic trials in AD.

The beneficial role of vitamin D in human immunodeficiency virus infection. 2013

Vitamin D also exerts its effect on HIV through nongenomic factors, i.e., ultraviolet radiation exposure, matrix metalloproteinase, heme oxygenase-1, the prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, and oxidative stress.

Vitamin D insufficiency in a large MCTD population. 2010

Abstract
OBJECTIVES:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vitamin D status in patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and to determine which clinical symptoms, laboratory parameters and endothelial cell markers are associated with low vitamin D levels.
METHODS:

125 female MCTD patients and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. The clinical symptoms, autoantibodies (anti-U1-RNP, anti-cardiolipin - anti-CL and anti-endothelial cell antibody - AECA), serum cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-12, IL-23, IL-17 and IL-10), soluble endothelial cell markers (endothelin, thrombomodulin - TM, and von Willebrand factor antigen - vWFAg) and serum lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, HDL-C, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B) were investigated for an association with vitamin D levels by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses.
RESULTS:

The mean vitamin D levels were significantly lower in MCTD patients, as compared with the control group (26.16±13.50ng/ml vs. 34.92±9.64ng/ml; p<0.001). In laboratory parameters, vitamin D levels were inversely associated with serum IL-6 (p<0.001), IL-23 (p=0.011), IL-10 (p=0.033) cytokine levels, TM (p=0.001) and endothelin (p=0.033) levels. Low vitamin D levels were also significantly associated with carotid artery intima media thickness (p<0.001), fibrinogen (p=0.010), total cholesterol (p=0.042) and ApoA1 (p=0.004) levels. Among the clinical symptoms, the cardiovascular involvement showed an inverse correlation with vitamin D status in MCTD (p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS:

The prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency is high in patients with MCTD. We assume that vitamin D insufficiency along with inflammatory parameters and lipid abnormalities may provoke cardiovascular events.

Classical and emerging roles of vitamin D in hepatitis C virus infection. 2011

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