Cell Biology and Physiology of CLC Chloride Channels and Transporters, 2012
Proteins of the CLC gene family assemble to homo- or sometimes heterodimers and either function as Cl(-) channels or as Cl(-)/H(+)-exchangers. CLC proteins are present in all phyla. Detailed structural information is available from crystal structures of bacterial and algal CLCs. Mammals express nine CLC genes, four of which encode Cl(-) channels and five 2Cl(-)/H(+)-exchangers. Two accessory β-subunits are known: (1) barttin and (2) Ostm1. ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb Cl(-) channels need barttin, whereas Ostm1 is required for the function of the lysosomal ClC-7 2Cl(-)/H(+)-exchanger. ClC-1,
2, )/H(+)-exchangers ClC-3 to ClC-7 may facilitate vesicular acidification by shunting currents of proton pumps and increase vesicular Cl(-) concentration. ClC-3 is also present on synaptic vesicles, whereas ClC-4 and Ka and and intracellular ion homeostasis, and in transepithelial transport. The mainly endosomal/lysosomal Cl( Kb Cl() channels reside in the plasma membrane and function in the control of electrical excitability of muscles or neurons, in extra 5 can reach the plasma membrane to some extent. ClC-7/Ostm1 is coinserted with the vesicular H(+)-ATPase into the acid-secreting ruffled border membrane of osteoclasts. Mice or humans lacking ClC-7 or Ostm1 display osteopetrosis and lysosomal storage disease. Disruption of the endosomal ClC-5 Cl()/H(+)-exchanger leads to proteinuria and Dent's disease. Mouse models in which ClC-5 or ClC-7 is converted to uncoupled Cl(-) conductors suggest an important role of vesicular Cl(-) accumulation in these pathologies. The important functions of CLC Cl(-) channels were also revealed by human diseases and mouse models, with phenotypes including myotonia, renal loss of salt and water, deafness, blindness, leukodystrophy, and male infertility.
The expression of Clcn7 and Ostm1 in osteoclasts is coregulated by microphthalmia transcription factor. 2007
Microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) regulates osteoclast function by controling the expression of genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced signaling. To identify novel MITF target genes, we have overexpressed MITF in the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 subclone 4 (RAW/C4) and examined the gene expression profile after sRANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis. Microarray analysis identified a set of genes superinduced by MITF overexpression, including Clcn7 (chloride channel 7) and Ostm1 (osteopetrosis-associated transmembrane protein 1). Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified two MITF-binding sites (M-boxes) in the Clcn7 promoter and a single M-box in the Ostm1 promoter. An anti-MITF antibody supershifted DNA-protein complexes for promoter sites in both genes, whereas MITF binding was abolished by mutation of these sites. The Clcn7 promoter was transactivated by coexpression of MITF in reporter gene assays. Mutation of one Clcn7 M-box prevented MITF transactivation, but mutation of the second MITF-binding site only reduced basal activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that the two Clcn7 MITF binding and responsive regions in vitro bind MITF in genomic DNA. The expression of Clcn7 is repressed in the dominant negative mutant Mitf mouse, mi/mi, indicating that the dysregulated bone resorption seen in these mice can be attributed in part to transcriptional repression of Clcn7. MITF regulation of the TRAP, cathepsin K, Clcn7, and Ostm1 genes, which are critical for osteoclast resorption, suggests that the role of MITF is more significant than previously perceived and that MITF may be a master regulator of osteoclast function and bone resorption.
Fish oil suppresses bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis through decreased expression of M-CSF, PU.1, MITF and RANK in ovariectomized rats. 2913
- Abstract »
Dietary fish oil suppressed ovariectomy‑stimulated osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting the expression of M‑CSF, PU.1, MITF and RANK in the early stages of osteoclastogenesis, upstream of RANKL signaling.
Regulation of mTORC1 by Small GTPases in Response to Nutrients. 2020
Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a highly evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase that regulates cell growth and metabolism in response to multiple environmental cues, such as nutrients, hormones, energy, and stress. Deregulation of mTORC1 can lead to diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cancer. A series of small GTPases, including Rag, Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb), adenosine diphosphate ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1), Ras-related protein Ral-A, Ras homolog (Rho), and Rab, are involved in regulating mTORC1 in response to nutrients, and mTORC1 is differentially regulated via these small GTPases according to specific conditions. Leucine and arginine sensing are considered to be well-confirmed amino acid-sensing signals, activating mTORC1 via a Rag GTPase-dependent mechanism as well as the Ragulator complex and vacuolar H+-adenosine triphosphatase (v-ATPase). Glutamine promotes mTORC1 activation via Arf1 independently of the Rag GTPase. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the regulation of mTORC1 activity by small GTPases in response to nutrients, focusing on the function of small GTPases in mTORC1 activation and how small GTPases are regulated by nutrients.