Specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs)
Lipids Signaling

Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
Date: 25/02/2021

Description

Lipids play a preeminent role in inflammation.

Specialized pro-resolving mediators: endogenous regulators of infection and inflammation, 2015 )

Insights in the Role of Lipids, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis Unveiled by New Trends in Lipidomic Investigations, 2021

Lipoxins

Interestingly, aspirin does not simply inhibit COX-2, but rather diverts its enzymatic activity toward the synthesis of precursors of lipoxin A4

The first step of Lipoxin A4 synthesis is shared by leukotrienes synthesis, is catalyzed by 5-LOX, and leads to LTA-4 synthesis.

Aspirin-triggered lipoxin in patients treated with aspirin and selective vs. nonselective COX-2 inhibitors. 2010

Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibition has been reported to suppress the biosynthesis of the gastroprotective lipoxygenase metabolite 15®-epi-lipoxin A4, also termed ‘aspirin-triggered lipoxin’ (ATL)

Aspirin-triggered lipoxin induces CB1-dependent catalepsy in mice. 2010

Aspirin, a non-selective COX inhibitor, acetylates COX-2 with generation of a lipoxygenase (LOX) substrate, whose end product is the 15-epi-lipoxin A(4) (15-epi-LXA), an aspirin-triggered lipoxin.

Lipoxin-Mediated Inflammatory Resolution in Newborn Hyperoxic Lung Injury

Aspirin, an anti-inflammatory drug that acetylates COX-2 and changes COX-2 function from a cyclooxygenases to a lipoxygenase, generates a more biologically stable and potent form of lipoxins, 15-epi lipoxins.

Cyclooxygenase 2 plays a pivotal role in the resolution of acute lung injury. 2005

COX-2-derived products increased levels of the pro-resolving lipid mediators lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and, in the presence of aspirin, 15-epi-LXA4.

Lipidomic and Transcriptome Signatures in Aspirin-Exacerbated Respiratory Disease 2009

When individuals with AERD ingest aspirin or other inhibitors of cyclooxygenase 1 they develop acute worsening of their rhinosinusitis accompanied by acute bronchoconstriction that may be life-threatening.

Induction of COX-2 by glucocorticoids + aspirin is the best anti-inflammatory combination? Dosage?

Receptors

Lipoxin and Resolvin Receptors Transducing the Resolution of Inflammation in Cardiovascular Disease, 2018

FPR2

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