Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
life takes place only in environments with an excess of energy: in our case, in the sunlight. This concept includes the following facts:
• Cells have to feed continuously
• Cells have to breath continuously
• Cells cannot ever stop producing energy
• Cells use energy to keep many ionic gradients (Ca++, Na+, K+, Cl- etc.)
Gradients are necessary for most cell functions (signal transduction, glucose and AA transport, etc.)
Heme synthesis Heme degradation
More details about Mitochondria
What happens if respiratory chain rate is low?
Mitochondria in Neurodegeneration: Bioenergetic Function in Cell Life and Death 1999
More details on mitochondria
Role of VDAC
ATP driven pumps
It is Na asimmetry driven by ATP powered pump?
NAD+/NADH + H+
Diabetes: insulin and ....
Regulation of the sodium/sulfate co-transporter by farnesoid X receptor alpha. 2007
Gene expression centroids that link with low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity and complex disease risk, 2010