Author: Gianpiero Pescarmona
T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that plays a central role in "cell-mediated immunity":
Contribution of anti-inflammatory/immune suppressive processes to the pathology of sepsis 2006
T-cell activation and maturation
NF-κB is a key player in T-cell activation and maturation.
Naïve T cells have NF-κB dimers bound to their inhibitor IκBα, rendering them inactive. When the T cell is activated through the T-cell receptor (TCR), the cell forms an adaptosome complex which comprises Bcl-10, Malt-1 and CARMA1, which results in downstream phosphorylation and eventual degradation of IκBα, allowing NF-κB to translocate to the nucleus and lead to gene transcription. The genes that are transcribed play an important role in T-cell growth and function.
Th1 cells differentiate from primed Th0 cells in response to DC-derived IL-12, resulting in the production of interferon-γ (INF-γ), TNF, IL-12 and IL-2, which are used in strong inflammatory responses to intracellular pathogens.
Twist 1 functions downstream NF-KB in T helper 1 lymphocytes and is induced following repeated T cell Receptor binding. In these cells, Twist 1 inhibits the production of IFN-γ, IL-2 and INF-α, thus preventing their pro-inflammatory action.
Th2 cells are influenced by IL-4 and lead to the production of IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5, all of which mediate responses to extracellular pathogens.
NF-κB and systemic lupus erythematosus: examining the link., 2013