Salvia officinalis is a perennial, evergreen subshrub with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant.
Common sage is grown in parts of Europe for distillation of an essential oil, though other species such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it. The essential oil contains 1,8 cineole, borneol, and trans-thujone, camphor, viridiflorol, β-caryophyllene and α-humulene . Sage leaf contains tannic acid, oleic acid, ursonic acid, , carnosol, carnosic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, niacin, nicotinamide, flavones, flavonoid glycosides, and estrogenic substances.
Ursolic acid is a pentacyclic triterpene acid, concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), and have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general.
"Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers.2011": pubmed
Salvia officinalis L. has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for and . It is demonstrated that presents significant anti-inflammatory and also antinociceptive effects. In addition, carnosol and ursolic acid/oleanolic acid contained in this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the extract, possibly through a modulatory influence on TRPA1-receptors.However,it needs further exploring .
Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of extract and isolated compounds from the leaves of Salvia officinalis in mice.2011
Drinking or gargling Salvia officinalis L. infusion (sage infusion) is thought to soothe a sore throat, tonsillitis, and inflamed, red gums, although structure-based scientific evidence for the key anti-inflammatory compounds in sage infusion is scarce.
The volatile compounds were found to be more effective than rosmarinic acid. 1,8-Cineole, borneol, camphor, and α-/β-thujone chiefly contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of sage infusion in human gingival fibroblasts.
Identification of 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, and thujone as anti-inflammatory compounds in a Salvia officinalis L. infusion using human gingival fibroblasts.2013
Significant levels of phenolics, flavonoids and trace metal are well related with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of medicinal plants as Salvia officinalis.
The results indicate that the phenolics, flavonoids and trace metals play an important role in of medicinal plants. Many of the plants studied here have been identified as potential sources of new antioxidant compounds.
Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of selected Chinese medicinal plants and their relation with antioxidant content.2012
Protective effects of extracts of three Salvia species, Salvia officinalis (SO), Salvia fruticosa (SF), and Salvia lavandulifolia (SL), against DNA damage induced by oxidative and alkylating agents were also determined.
Data show that sage tea protect colon cells against oxidative and alkylating DNA damage and may also interfere with efficacy of alkylating agents used in cancer therapy.
Protection by Salvia extracts against oxidative and alkylation damage to DNA in human HCT15 and CO115 cells.2012
Sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of .The consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential.
Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.2015
Lamiaceae species are a rich source of various natural AChE inhibitors and antioxidants that could be useful in .
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory, antioxidant and phytochemical properties of selected medicinal plants of the Lamiaceae family.2014
The aqueous extract of sage leaves possess a mnemonic effect on adult male mice, confirming their use in traditional medicine.
Effects of sage extract on memory performance in mice and acetylcholinesterase activity.2015
Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years.
Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.2015
Hydro-alcoholic extracts prepared from the shoot of Salvia officinalis, Satureja hortensis, Mentha longifolia and Achillea millefolium, the seed of Pimpinella anisum and Carum copticum and the fruit of Rhus coriaria with maceration method, had the greatest inhibitory effect on growth of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Actinomyces viscosus.
The effect of hydro alcoholic extract of seven plants on cariogenic bacteria--an in vitro evaluation.2014
Salvia officinalis has-inflammatory, balsamic, digestive and expectorant properties. It is also able to treat painful menstrual syndrome and menopause symptoms (especially that annoying disorder called "hot flashes": for this is also called "natural estrogen"). It offers a good response against water retention, edema, rheumatism and headaches, and is also indicated in gingivitis and abscesses.
Sage is a stimulant of the organism. It has also a gastroprotective action since it is antispasmodic and is useful in diabetes because it reduces blood sugar level.